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Aliados da Segunda Guerra Mundial

Allies of World War II

Os Aliados , mais tarde conhecidos formalmente como Nações Unidas , foram uma coalizão militar internacional formada durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial (1939-1945) para se opor às potências do Eixo , lideradas pela Alemanha nazista , Japão imperial e Itália fascista . Seus principais membros em 1941 eram o Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , União Soviética e China .

Aliados da Segunda Guerra Mundial
1939–1945
WWII.png
  •   Aliados e suas colônias
  •   Aliados entrando após o ataque a Pearl Harbor
  •   Potências do Eixo , co-beligerantes e suas colônias
  •   Potências neutras e suas colônias



Outros estados combatentes aliados:

Status Aliança militar
Era histórica Segunda Guerra Mundial
fevereiro de 1921
agosto de 1939
Set. 1939 – Jun. 1940
Junho de 1941
Julho de 1941
agosto de 1941
Janeiro de 1942
Maio de 1942
Nov.–Dez. 1943
1–15 de julho de 1944
4–11 de fevereiro de 1945
Abr.–Jun. 1945
Jul.–Aug. 1945
Notas de rodapé
    1. ^ Edvard Beneš, president of the First Czechoslovak Republic, fled the country after the 1938 Munich Agreement saw the Sudetenland-region annexed by Germany. In 1939 a German sponsored Slovak Republic seceded from the post-Munich Second Czechoslovak Republic, providing justification for the establishment of a German protectorate over the remaining Czech lands (the rump Carpathian Ruthenia-region being annexed by Hungary). Following the outbreak of war later the same year, Beneš, in his exile, formed a Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee which after some months of negotiations regarding its legitimacy became regarded as the Czechoslovak government-in-exile by the Allies.
    2. ^ France declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939, two days after the German invasion of Poland. It was a member of the Allies until its defeat in the German invasion of France in June 1940. Unlike the other governments-in-exile in London, which were legitimate governments that had escaped their respective countries and continued the fight, France had surrendered to the Axis. The "Free French Forces" was a section of the French army who refused to recognize the armistice and continued to fight with the Allies. They worked towards France being seen and treated as a major allied power, as opposed to a defeated and then liberated nation. They struggled with legitimacy vis-a-vis the German client state "Vichy France", which was the internationally recognized government of France even among the Allies. A National Liberation Committee was formed by the Free French after the gradual liberation of Vichy colonial territory, which led to the full German occupation of Vichy France in 1942. This started a shift in allied policy from trying to improve relations with the Vichy Regime into full support to what was now the Provisional Government of the French Republic.
    3. ^ The Ethiopian Empire was invaded by Italy on 3 October 1935. On 2 May 1936, Emperor Haile Selassie I fled into exile, just before the Italian occupation on 7 May. After the outbreak of World War II, the United Kingdom recognized Haile Selassie as the Emperor of Ethiopia in July 1940 and his Ethiopian exile government cooperated with the British during their invasion of Italian East Africa in 1941. Through the invasion Haile Selassie returned to Ethiopia on 18 January, with the liberation of the country being completed by November the same year.
    4. ^ China had been at war with Japan since July 1937. It declared war on Japan, Germany and Italy and joined the Allies in December 1941 after the attacks on Pearl Harbor.
Three men, Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill, sitting together elbow to elbow
Os líderes aliados do teatro europeu (da esquerda para a direita): Joseph Stalin , Franklin D. Roosevelt e Winston Churchill reunidos na Conferência de Teerã em 1943
Three men, Chiang Kai-shek, Roosevelt and Churchill, sitting together elbow to elbow
Os líderes aliados do Teatro Asiático e do Pacífico : Generalíssimo Chiang Kai-shek , Franklin D. Roosevelt e Winston Churchill reunidos na Conferência do Cairo em 1943

A adesão aos Aliados variou durante o curso da guerra. Quando o conflito eclodiu em 1 de setembro de 1939, a coalizão aliada consistia no Reino Unido, França e Polônia , bem como suas respectivas dependências , como a Índia britânica . Eles logo se juntaram aos domínios independentes da Comunidade Britânica : Canadá , Austrália , Nova Zelândia e África do Sul . Consequentemente, a aliança inicial se assemelhava em grande parte à da Primeira Guerra Mundial .

Quando as forças do Eixo começaram a invadir o norte da Europa e os Balcãs , os Aliados acrescentaram a Holanda , Bélgica , Noruega , Grécia e Iugoslávia . A União Soviética, que inicialmente tinha um pacto de não agressão com a Alemanha e participou da invasão da Polônia , juntou-se aos Aliados em junho de 1941 após a Operação Barbarossa . Os Estados Unidos, apesar de fornecerem algum apoio material aos aliados europeus desde setembro de 1940, permaneceram formalmente neutros até o bombardeio japonês de Pearl Harbor em dezembro de 1941, após o qualdeclarou guerra e se juntou oficialmente aos Aliados. A China já estava em guerra com o Japão desde 1937 , mas se juntou formalmente aos Aliados em dezembro de 1941.

Os Aliados eram liderados pelos chamados "Três Grandes" - o Reino Unido, a União Soviética e os Estados Unidos - que eram os principais contribuintes de mão de obra, recursos e estratégia, cada um desempenhando um papel fundamental na conquista da vitória. [1] [2] [3] Uma série de conferências entre líderes aliados, diplomatas e oficiais militares gradualmente moldaram a composição da aliança, a direção da guerra e, finalmente, a ordem internacional do pós-guerra. As relações entre o Reino Unido e os Estados Unidos foram especialmente estreitas , com sua Carta Atlântica bilateral formando a base da aliança.

Os Aliados tornaram-se um grupo formalizado na Declaração das Nações Unidas em 1º de janeiro de 1942, que foi assinada por 26 nações ao redor do mundo; estes variavam de pequenas nações distantes da guerra a governos exilados da ocupação do Eixo. A Declaração reconheceu oficialmente as Três Grandes e a China como as "Quatro Potências", [4] reconhecendo seu papel central no prosseguimento da guerra; eles também foram referidos como a " tutela dos poderosos", e mais tarde como os " Quatro Policiais " das Nações Unidas. [5] Muitos outros países se juntaram até os dias finais da guerra, incluindo colônias e ex-nações do Eixo.

Após o fim da guerra, os Aliados, e a Declaração que os unia, tornar-se-iam a base das modernas Nações Unidas ; [6] um legado duradouro da aliança é a adesão permanente ao Conselho de Segurança da ONU , que é composto exclusivamente pelas principais potências aliadas que venceram a guerra.

Origens

Os Aliados vitoriosos da Primeira Guerra Mundial – que incluíam o que se tornariam as potências aliadas da Segunda Guerra Mundial impuseram duras condições às Potências Centrais adversárias na Conferência de Paz de Paris de 1919-1920 . A Alemanha se ressentiu de assinar o Tratado de Versalhes , que exigia que ela assumisse total responsabilidade pela guerra, uma parte significativa do território, e pagasse reparações caras, entre outras penalidades. A República de Weimar , que se formou no final da guerra e posteriormente negociou o tratado, viu sua legitimidade abalada, principalmente porque lutava para governar uma economia muito enfraquecida e uma população humilhada.

O Crash de Wall Street de 1929 e a Grande Depressão que se seguiu levaram à agitação política em toda a Europa, especialmente na Alemanha, onde os nacionalistas revanchistas atribuíram a gravidade da crise econômica ao Tratado de Versalhes. O Partido Nazista de extrema-direita liderado por Adolf Hitler , que se formou logo após o tratado de paz, explorou o crescente ressentimento e desespero popular para se tornar o movimento político dominante na Alemanha; em 1933, eles ganharam o poder e rapidamente estabeleceram um regime totalitário conhecido como Alemanha nazista. O regime nazista exigiu o cancelamento imediato do Tratado de Versalhes e fez reivindicações sobre a Áustria povoada por alemães e os territórios povoados por alemães da Tchecoslováquia. A probabilidade de guerra era alta, mas nenhuma das grandes potências tinha apetite para outro conflito; muitos governos procuraram aliviar as tensões por meio de estratégias não militares, como o apaziguamento .

O Japão, que foi a principal potência aliada na Primeira Guerra Mundial, desde então se tornou cada vez mais militarista e imperialista; paralelamente à Alemanha, o sentimento nacionalista aumentou ao longo da década de 1920, culminando na invasão da Manchúria em 1931. A Liga das Nações condenou veementemente o ataque como um ato de agressão à China; O Japão respondeu deixando a Liga em 1933. A segunda Guerra Sino-Japonesa eclodiu em 1937 com a invasão em grande escala da China pelo Japão. A Liga das Nações condenou as ações do Japão e iniciou sanções; os Estados Unidos, que tentaram negociar pacificamente a paz na Ásia, ficaram especialmente irritados com a invasão e procuraram apoiar a China.

Cartaz britânico de guerra apoiando a Polônia após a invasão alemã do país ( teatro europeu )
Cartaz de guerra americano promovendo ajuda à China durante a Segunda Guerra Sino-Japonesa ( teatro do Pacífico )

Em março de 1939, a Alemanha assumiu o controle da Tchecoslováquia , apenas seis meses após a assinatura do Acordo de Munique , que buscava apaziguar Hitler cedendo as fronteiras da Tchecoslováquia principalmente alemãs ; enquanto a maior parte da Europa celebrava o acordo como uma grande vitória para a paz, a ostentação aberta de seus termos demonstrava o fracasso do apaziguamento. A Grã-Bretanha e a França, que haviam sido os principais defensores do apaziguamento, decidiram que Hitler não tinha intenção de manter acordos diplomáticos e responderam preparando-se para a guerra. Em 31 de março de 1939, a Grã-Bretanha formou a aliança militar anglo-polonesa em um esforço para evitar um iminente ataque alemão à Polônia; os franceses também tinham uma longaaliança com a Polônia desde 1921 . A União Soviética , que havia sido isolada diplomaticamente e economicamente por grande parte do mundo, havia buscado uma aliança com as potências ocidentais, mas Hitler antecipou uma guerra potencial com Stalin assinando o pacto de não agressão nazista-soviético em agosto de 1939. para evitar uma guerra em duas frentes que havia atingido suas forças na última guerra mundial, o acordo dividia secretamente os estados independentes da Europa Central e Oriental entre as duas potências e assegurava suprimentos adequados de petróleo para a máquina de guerra alemã.

On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland; two days later Britain and France declared war on Germany. Roughly two weeks after Germany's attack, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east. Britain and France established the Anglo-French Supreme War Council to coordinate military decisions. A Polish government-in-exilefoi estabelecido em Londres, junto com centenas de milhares de soldados poloneses, que permaneceriam uma nação aliada até o fim. Após um inverno tranquilo, a Alemanha iniciou sua invasão da Europa Ocidental em abril de 1940, derrotando rapidamente a Dinamarca, Noruega, Bélgica, Holanda e França; todas as nações ocupadas estabeleceriam posteriormente um governo no exílio em Londres, cada uma contribuindo com um contingente de tropas fugitivas. No entanto, cerca de um ano após a violação do Acordo de Munique pela Alemanha, a Grã-Bretanha e seu Império estavam sozinhos contra Hitler e Mussolini.

Formação da "Grande Aliança"

Antes de serem formalmente aliados, o Reino Unido e os Estados Unidos cooperaram de várias maneiras, [1] notadamente através do acordo de contratorpedeiros por bases em setembro de 1940 e o programa americano Lend-Lease , que forneceu à Grã-Bretanha e à União Soviética União com material de guerra a partir de outubro de 1941. [7] [8] A Comunidade Britânica e, em menor grau, a União Soviética retribuíram com um programa menor de Reverso Lend-Lease . [9] [10]

A Primeira Reunião Inter-Aliados ocorreu em Londres no início de junho de 1941 entre o Reino Unido, os quatro domínios britânicos co-beligerantes (Canadá, Austrália, Nova Zelândia e África do Sul), os oito governos no exílio ( Bélgica , Tchecoslováquia , Grécia , Luxemburgo , Holanda , Noruega , Polônia , Iugoslávia ) e França Livre . A reunião culminou com a Declaração do Palácio de St James , que estabeleceu uma primeira visão para o mundo pós-guerra.

Em junho de 1941, Hitler rompeu o acordo de não agressão com Stalin e as forças do Eixo invadiram a União Soviética , que consequentemente declarou guerra à Alemanha e seus aliados. A Grã-Bretanha concordou com uma aliança com a União Soviética em julho, com as duas nações se comprometendo a ajudar uma à outra por qualquer meio e a nunca negociar uma paz separada. No mês de agosto seguinte, ocorreu a Conferência do Atlântico entre o presidente americano Franklin Roosevelt e o primeiro-ministro britânico Winston Churchill , que definiu uma visão anglo-americana comum do mundo pós-guerra, formalizada pela Carta do Atlântico . [11]

Na Segunda Reunião Inter-Aliados em Londres, em setembro de 1941, os oito governos europeus no exílio, juntamente com a União Soviética e representantes das Forças Francesas Livres, adotaram por unanimidade a adesão aos princípios comuns de política estabelecidos na Carta do Atlântico. Em dezembro, o Japão atacou territórios americanos e britânicos na Ásia e no Pacífico, resultando na entrada formal dos EUA na guerra como potência aliada. Ainda se recuperando da agressão japonesa, a China declarou guerra a todas as potências do Eixo logo depois.

No final de 1941, as principais linhas da Segunda Guerra Mundial haviam se formado. Churchill referiu-se à "Grande Aliança" do Reino Unido, Estados Unidos e União Soviética, [12] [13] que juntos desempenharam o maior papel no prosseguimento da guerra. A aliança foi em grande parte de conveniência para cada membro: o Reino Unido percebeu que as potências do Eixo ameaçavam não apenas suas colônias no norte da África e na Ásia, mas também a pátria . Os Estados Unidos sentiram que a expansão japonesa e alemã deveria ser contida, mas descartou a força até o ataque do Japão. A União Soviética, traída pelo ataque do Eixoem 1941, desprezou muito a beligerância alemã e a incontestável expansão japonesa no Oriente, particularmente considerando sua derrota em guerras anteriores com o Japão; os soviéticos também reconheceram, como os EUA e a Grã-Bretanha sugeriram, as vantagens de uma guerra em duas frentes .

Os Três Grandes

Franklin D. Roosevelt , Winston Churchill e Joseph Stalin foram os três grandes líderes. Eles estavam em contato frequente por meio de embaixadores, generais de alto escalão, ministros das Relações Exteriores e emissários especiais, como o americano Harry Hopkins . Também é frequentemente chamada de "Aliança Estranha", porque uniu os líderes do maior estado capitalista do mundo (os Estados Unidos), o maior estado socialista (a União Soviética) e a maior potência colonial (o Reino Unido). [14]

As relações entre eles resultaram nas principais decisões que moldaram o esforço de guerra e planejaram para o mundo do pós-guerra. [3] [15] A cooperação entre o Reino Unido e os Estados Unidos foi especialmente estreita e incluiu a formação de um Estado-Maior Combinado . [16]

Houve inúmeras conferências de alto nível ; no total, Churchill participou de 14 reuniões, Roosevelt 12 e Stalin 5. Mais visíveis foram as três conferências de cúpula que reuniram os três principais líderes. [17] [18] A política aliada em relação à Alemanha e ao Japão evoluiu e se desenvolveu nessas três conferências. [19]

  • Conferência de Teerã (codinome "Eureka") - primeira reunião dos Três Grandes (28 de novembro de 1943 - 1 de dezembro de 1943)
  • Conferência de Yalta (codinome "Argonaut") - segunda reunião dos Três Grandes (4-11 de fevereiro de 1945)
  • Conferência de Potsdam (codinome "Terminal") - terceira e última reunião dos Três Grandes (Truman assumiu para Roosevelt, 17 de julho - 2 de agosto de 1945)

Tensões

Havia muitas tensões entre os líderes dos Três Grandes, embora não fossem suficientes para romper a aliança durante a guerra. [2] [20]

Em 1942, Roosevelt propôs tornar-se, com a China, os Quatro Policiais da paz mundial. Embora os 'Quatro Poderes' estivessem refletidos na redação da Declaração das Nações Unidas , a proposta de Roosevelt não foi inicialmente apoiada por Churchill ou Stalin.

A divisão surgiu ao longo do tempo que os aliados ocidentais levaram para estabelecer uma segunda frente na Europa. [21] Stalin e os soviéticos usaram o emprego potencial da segunda frente como um 'teste ácido' para suas relações com as potências anglo-americanas. [22] Os soviéticos foram forçados a usar o máximo de mão-de-obra possível na luta contra os alemães, enquanto os Estados Unidos tiveram o luxo de flexionar o poder industrial, mas com o "mínimo gasto possível de vidas americanas". [22] Roosevelt e Churchill abriram frentes terrestres no norte da África em 1942 e na Itália em 1943, e lançaram um ataque aéreo maciço contra a Alemanha, mas Stalin continuou querendo mais.

Embora os EUA tivessem uma relação tensa com a URSS na década de 1920, as relações foram normalizadas em 1933. Os termos originais do empréstimo Lend-Lease foram alterados para os soviéticos, para serem alinhados com os termos britânicos. Os Estados Unidos agora esperariam juros com o reembolso dos soviéticos, após o início da Operação Barbarossa , no final da guerra - os Estados Unidos não estavam procurando apoiar nenhum "esforço de reconstrução soviético do pós-guerra", [23] que eventualmente manifestado no Plano Molotov . Na conferência de Teerã , Stalin julgou Roosevelt como um "leve em comparação com o mais formidável Churchill". [24] [25]Durante as reuniões de 1943 a 1945, houve disputas sobre a crescente lista de demandas da URSS.

As tensões aumentaram ainda mais quando Roosevelt morreu e seu sucessor Harry Truman rejeitou as exigências apresentadas por Stalin. [21] Roosevelt queria minimizar essas tensões ideológicas. [26] Roosevelt sentiu que "compreendia a psicologia de Stalin", afirmando que "Stalin estava muito ansioso para provar um ponto... ele sofria de um complexo de inferioridade." [27]

Nações Unidas

Cartaz de guerra para as Nações Unidas , criado em 1941 pelo Escritório de Informações de Guerra dos EUA

Quatro policiais

Em dezembro de 1941, Roosevelt criou o nome "Nações Unidas" para os Aliados e Churchill concordou. [28] [29] Ele se referiu aos Três Grandes e à China como os " Quatro Policiais " repetidamente desde 1942. [30]

Declaração das Nações Unidas

Cartaz de guerra para as Nações Unidas , criado em 1943 pelo US Office of War Information

A aliança foi formalizada na Declaração das Nações Unidas assinada em 1º de janeiro de 1942. Havia os 26 signatários originais da declaração; os Quatro Grandes foram listados primeiro:

Aliança crescendo

As Nações Unidas começaram a crescer imediatamente após sua formação. Em 1942, México, Filipinas e Etiópia aderiram à declaração. A Etiópia foi restaurada à independência pelas forças britânicas após a derrota italiana em 1941. As Filipinas, ainda de propriedade de Washington, mas com reconhecimento diplomático internacional, foram autorizadas a ingressar em 10 de junho, apesar de sua ocupação pelo Japão.

Em 1943, a Declaração foi assinada pelo Iraque, Irã, Brasil, Bolívia e Colômbia. Um Tratado Tripartite de Aliança com a Grã-Bretanha e a URSS formalizou a assistência do Irã aos Aliados. [31] No Rio de Janeiro , o ditador brasileiro Getúlio Vargas foi considerado próximo das ideias fascistas, mas ingressou realisticamente nas Nações Unidas após seus evidentes sucessos.

Em 1944, a Libéria e a França assinaram. A situação francesa era muito confusa. As forças francesas livres foram reconhecidas apenas pela Grã-Bretanha, enquanto os Estados Unidos consideravam a França de Vichy o governo legal do país até a Operação Overlord , enquanto também preparavam francos de ocupação dos EUA . Winston Churchill exortou Roosevelt a restaurar a França ao seu status de grande potência após a libertação de Paris em agosto de 1944; o primeiro-ministro temia que, após a guerra, a Grã-Bretanha pudesse continuar a ser a única grande potência na Europa que enfrentava a ameaça comunista, como foi em 1940 e 1941 contra o nazismo.

Durante a primeira parte de 1945, Peru, Chile, Paraguai, Venezuela, Uruguai, Turquia, Egito, Arábia Saudita, Líbano, Síria (estas duas últimas colônias francesas foram declaradas estados independentes pelas tropas de ocupação britânicas, apesar dos protestos de Pétain e mais tarde De Gaulle) e o Equador tornaram-se signatários. A Ucrânia e a Bielorrússia , que não eram estados independentes, mas partes da União Soviética, foram aceitas como membros das Nações Unidas como forma de fornecer maior influência a Stalin, que tinha apenas a Iugoslávia como parceira comunista na aliança.

Principais combatentes do estado afiliado

Reino Unido

Tanques britânicos cruzados durante a campanha norte-africana
Porta-aviões britânico HMS Ark Royal sob ataque de aeronaves italianas durante a Batalha do Cabo Spartivento (27 de novembro de 1940)
Soldados britânicos da Infantaria Leve de Yorkshire do Rei em Elst , Holanda, em 2 de março de 1945

O primeiro-ministro britânico, Neville Chamberlain , fez seu discurso de ultimato em 3 de setembro de 1939, que declarou guerra à Alemanha , poucas horas antes da França. Como o Estatuto de Westminster de 1931 ainda não foi ratificado pelos parlamentos da Austrália e Nova Zelândia, a declaração de guerra britânica à Alemanha também se aplicava a esses domínios . Os outros domínios e membros da Comunidade Britânica declararam guerra a partir de 3 de setembro de 1939, todos com uma semana de diferença entre si; eram Canadá , Índia britânica e África do Sul . [32]

Durante a guerra, Churchill participou de dezessete conferências aliadas nas quais decisões e acordos importantes foram feitos. Ele foi "o mais importante dos líderes aliados durante a primeira metade da Segunda Guerra Mundial". [33]

Colônias e dependências da África

A África Ocidental Britânica e as colônias britânicas na África Oriental e Austral participaram, principalmente nos teatros do Norte da África, da África Oriental e do Oriente Médio. Duas divisões da África Ocidental e uma da África Oriental serviram na Campanha da Birmânia .

A Rodésia do Sul era uma colônia autônoma, tendo recebido um governo responsável em 1923. Não era um domínio soberano. Ele se governava internamente e controlava suas próprias forças armadas, mas não tinha autonomia diplomática e, portanto, estava oficialmente em guerra assim que a Grã-Bretanha estava em guerra. O governo colonial da Rodésia do Sul emitiu uma declaração simbólica de guerra, no entanto, em 3 de setembro de 1939, que não fez diferença diplomática, mas precedeu as declarações de guerra feitas por todos os outros domínios e colônias britânicos. [34]

colônias e dependências americanas

Estes incluíam: as Índias Ocidentais Britânicas , Honduras Britânicas , Guiana Britânica e as Ilhas Malvinas . O Domínio de Terra Nova foi governado diretamente como uma colônia real de 1933 a 1949, dirigido por um governador nomeado por Londres que tomava as decisões sobre Terra Nova.

Ásia

A Índia britânica incluía as áreas e povos cobertos pela Índia posterior , Bangladesh , Paquistão e (até 1937) Birmânia/Mianmar , que mais tarde se tornou uma colônia separada.

A Malásia britânica cobre as áreas da Malásia peninsular e Cingapura , enquanto a Bornéu britânica cobre a área de Brunei , incluindo Sabah e Sarawak da Malásia.

A Hong Kong britânica consistia na Ilha de Hong Kong , na Península de Kowloon e nos Novos Territórios .

Os territórios controlados pelo Colonial Office , ou seja, as Colônias da Coroa , eram controlados politicamente pelo Reino Unido e, portanto, também entraram em hostilidades com a declaração de guerra da Grã-Bretanha. Com a eclosão da Segunda Guerra Mundial, o exército indiano britânico contava com 205.000 homens. Mais tarde, durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, o Exército da Índia Britânica tornou-se a maior força de voluntários da história, chegando a mais de 2,5 milhões de homens em tamanho.

Soldados indianos ganharam 30 Victoria Crosses durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Sofreu 87.000 baixas militares (mais do que qualquer colônia da Coroa, mas menos do que o Reino Unido). O Reino Unido sofreu 382.000 baixas militares.

O Kuwait era um protetorado do Reino Unido formalmente estabelecido em 1899. Os Estados da Trégua eram protetorados britânicos no Golfo Pérsico.

A Palestina era uma dependência de mandato criada nos acordos de paz após a Primeira Guerra Mundial do antigo território do Império Otomano , o Iraque .

Europa

O Regimento de Chipre foi formado pelo governo britânico durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial e fez parte da estrutura do Exército Britânico. Eram principalmente voluntários cipriotas gregos e habitantes cipriotas de língua turca de Chipre, mas também incluíam outras nacionalidades da Commonwealth. Em uma breve visita a Chipre em 1943, Winston Churchill elogiou os "soldados do Regimento de Chipre que serviram honrosamente em muitos campos da Líbia a Dunquerque". Cerca de 30.000 cipriotas serviram no Regimento de Chipre. O regimento esteve envolvido em ação desde o início e serviu em Dunquerque , na Campanha da Grécia (cerca de 600 soldados foram capturados em Kalamata em 1941), Norte da África ( Operação Compass), França, Médio Oriente e Itália. Muitos soldados foram feitos prisioneiros especialmente no início da guerra e foram internados em vários campos de prisioneiros de guerra ( Stalag ), incluindo Lamsdorf ( Stalag VIII-B ), Stalag IVC em Wistritz bei Teplitz e Stalag 4b perto de Most na República Tcheca. Os soldados capturados em Kalamata foram transportados de trem para campos de prisioneiros de guerra.

França

Guerra declarada

FAFL Free French GC II/5 "LaFayette" recebendo ex-caças Curtiss P-40 da USAAF em Casablanca , Marrocos Francês
A frota francesa se afundou em vez de cair nas mãos do Eixo após a invasão da França de Vichy em 11 de novembro de 1942.

Depois que a Alemanha invadiu a Polônia, a França declarou guerra à Alemanha em 3 de setembro de 1939. [35] Em janeiro de 1940, o primeiro-ministro francês Édouard Daladier fez um grande discurso denunciando as ações da Alemanha:

Ao fim de cinco meses de guerra, uma coisa ficou cada vez mais clara. É que a Alemanha busca estabelecer uma dominação do mundo completamente diferente de qualquer outra conhecida na história mundial.

A dominação que os nazistas almejam não se limita ao deslocamento do equilíbrio de poder e à imposição da supremacia de uma nação. Busca a destruição sistemática e total dos conquistados por Hitler e não faz acordos com as nações que subjugou. Ele os destrói. Ele tira deles toda a sua existência política e econômica e procura até privá-los de sua história e cultura. Ele deseja apenas considerá-los como um espaço vital e um território vago sobre o qual ele tem todo o direito.

Os seres humanos que constituem essas nações são para ele apenas gado. Ele ordena seu massacre ou migração. Ele os compele a abrir espaço para seus conquistadores. Ele nem se dá ao trabalho de lhes impor qualquer tributo de guerra. Ele apenas toma todas as suas riquezas e, para evitar qualquer revolta, busca cientificamente a degradação física e moral daqueles cuja independência ele tirou. [35]

A França experimentou várias fases importantes de ação durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial:

Colônias e dependências

África

Na África, eles incluíam: África Ocidental Francesa , África Equatorial Francesa , os mandatos da Liga das Nações dos Camarões franceses e Togoland francês , Madagascar francês , Somalilândia francesa e os protetorados da Tunísia francesa e Marrocos francês .

French Algeria was then not a colony or dependency but a fully-fledged part of metropolitan France.

Asia and Oceania
The fall of Damascus to the Allies, late June 1941. A car carrying Free French commanders General Georges Catroux and General Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme enters the city, escorted by French Circassian cavalry ( Gardes Tcherkess).

Na Ásia e Oceania, estes incluíam: Polinésia Francesa , Wallis e Futuna , Nova Caledônia , Novas Hébridas , Indochina Francesa , Índia Francesa , Guangzhouwan , os mandatos do Grande Líbano e Síria Francesa . O governo francês em 1936 tentou conceder a independência ao seu mandato da Síria no Tratado Franco-Sírio de Independência de 1936assinado pela França e pela Síria. No entanto, a oposição ao tratado cresceu na França e o tratado não foi ratificado. A Síria tornou-se uma república oficial em 1930 e era em grande parte autogovernada. Em 1941, uma invasão liderada pelos britânicos e apoiada pelas forças da França Livre expulsou as forças francesas de Vichy na Operação Exportador .

Américas

Nas Américas, estes incluíram: Martinica , Guadalupe , Guiana Francesa e Saint Pierre e Miquelon .

União Soviética

Soldados soviéticos e tanques T-34 avançando perto de Bryansk em 1942
Soldados soviéticos lutando nas ruínas de Stalingrado durante a Batalha de Stalingrado
Avião de ataque ao solo soviético Il-2 atacando as forças terrestres alemãs durante a Batalha de Kursk , 1943

História

No período que antecedeu a guerra entre a União Soviética e a Alemanha nazista, as relações entre os dois estados passaram por várias etapas. O secretário-geral Joseph Stalin e o governo da União Soviética apoiaram os chamados movimentos de frente popular de antifascistas, incluindo comunistas e não comunistas, de 1935 a 1939. [37] A estratégia da frente popular foi encerrada de 1939 a 1941, quando a A União Soviética cooperou com a Alemanha em 1939 na ocupação e divisão da Polônia. A liderança soviética recusou-se a endossar os Aliados ou o Eixo de 1939 a 1941, pois chamou o conflito Aliado-Eixo de "guerra imperialista". [37]

Stalin havia estudado Hitler, inclusive lendo Mein Kampf , e por isso sabia dos motivos de Hitler para destruir a União Soviética. [38] Já em 1933, a liderança soviética expressou suas preocupações com a suposta ameaça de uma potencial invasão alemã do país caso a Alemanha tentasse conquistar a Lituânia , Letônia ou Estônia , e em dezembro de 1933 começaram as negociações para a emissão de uma declaração conjunta polaco-soviética que garante a soberania dos três países bálticos. [39] No entanto, a Polónia retirou-se das negociações na sequência de objecções alemãs e finlandesas. [39]A União Soviética e a Alemanha nessa época competiam entre si pela influência na Polônia. [40] O governo soviético também estava preocupado com o sentimento anti-soviético na Polônia e particularmente com a federação polonesa proposta por Józef Piłsudski que incluiria os territórios da Polônia, Lituânia, Bielorrússia e Ucrânia dentro dela que ameaçava a integridade territorial da União Soviética. União. [41]

Em 20 de agosto de 1939, as forças da União das Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas sob o comando do general Georgy Zhukov , juntamente com a República Popular da Mongólia, eliminaram a ameaça de conflito no leste com uma vitória sobre o Japão Imperial na Batalha de Khalkhin Gol , no leste da Mongólia.

No mesmo dia, o líder do partido soviético Joseph Stalin recebeu um telegrama do chanceler alemão Adolf Hitler , sugerindo que o ministro das Relações Exteriores alemão Joachim von Ribbentrop voasse para Moscou para negociações diplomáticas. (Depois de receber uma resposta morna durante a primavera e o verão, Stalin abandonou as tentativas de um melhor relacionamento diplomático com a França e o Reino Unido.) [42]

Em 23 de agosto, Ribbentrop e o ministro das Relações Exteriores soviético Vyacheslav Molotov assinaram o pacto de não agressão, incluindo protocolos secretos dividindo a Europa Oriental em "esferas de influência" definidas para os dois regimes, e especificamente sobre a divisão do estado polonês no caso de sua " rearranjo territorial e político". [43]

On 15 September 1939, Stalin concluded a durable ceasefire with Japan, to take effect the following day (it would be upgraded to a non-aggression pact in April 1941).[44] The day after that, 17 September, Soviet forces invaded Poland from the east. Although some fighting continued until 5 October, the two invading armies held at least one joint military parade on 25 September, and reinforced their non-military partnership with the German–Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Demarcation on 28 September. German and Soviet cooperation against Poland in 1939 has been described as co-belligerence.[45][46]

On 30 November, the Soviet Union attacked Finland, for which it was expelled from the League of Nations. In the following year of 1940, while the world's attention was focused upon the German invasion of France and Norway,[47] the USSR militarily[48] occupied and annexed Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania[49] as well as parts of Romania.

German-Soviet treaties were brought to an end by the German surprise attack on the USSR on 22 June 1941. After the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, Stalin endorsed the Western Allies as part of a renewed popular front strategy against Germany and called for the international communist movement to make a coalition with all those who opposed the Nazis.[37] The Soviet Union soon entered in alliance with the United Kingdom. Following the USSR, a number of other communist, pro-Soviet or Soviet-controlled forces fought against the Axis powers during the Second World War. They were as follows: the Albanian National Liberation Front, the Chinese Red Army, the Greek National Liberation Front, the Hukbalahap, the Malayan Communist Party, the People's Republic of Mongolia, the Polish People's Army, the Tuvan People's Republic (annexed by the Soviet Union in 1944),[50] the Viet Minh and the Yugoslav Partisans.

The Soviet Union intervened against Japan and its client state in Manchuria in 1945, cooperating with the Nationalist Government of China and the Nationalist Party led by Chiang Kai-shek; though also cooperating, preferring, and encouraging the Chinese Communist Party led by Mao Zedong to take effective control of Manchuria after expelling Japanese forces.[51]

United States

American Douglas SBD Dauntless dive-bomber aircraft attacking the Japanese cruiser Mikuma during the Battle of Midway in June 1942
U.S. Marines during the Guadalcanal Campaign in November 1942
American Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber aircraft during the bombing of oil refineries in Ploiești, Romania on 1 August 1943 during Operation Tidal Wave
U.S. soldiers departing landing craft during the Normandy landings on 6 June 1944 known as D-Day

War justifications

The United States had indirectly supported Britain's war effort against Germany up to 1941 and declared its opposition to territorial aggrandizement. Materiel support to Britain was provided while the U.S. was officially neutral via the Lend-Lease Act starting in 1941.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill in August 1941 promulgated the Atlantic Charter that pledged commitment to achieving "the final destruction of Nazi tyranny".[52] Signing the Atlantic Charter, and thereby joining the "United Nations" was the way a state joined the Allies, and also became eligible for membership in the United Nations world body that formed in 1945.

The US strongly supported the Nationalist Government in China in its war with Japan, and provided military equipment, supplies, and volunteers to the Nationalist Government of China to assist in its war effort.[53] In December 1941 Japan opened the war with its attack on Pearl Harbor, the US declared war on Japan, and Japan's allies Germany and Italy declared war on the US, bringing the US into World War II.

The US played a central role in liaising among the Allies and especially among the Big Four.[54] At the Arcadia Conference in December 1941, shortly after the US entered the war, the US and Britain established a Combined Chiefs of Staff, based in Washington, which deliberated the military decisions of both the US and Britain.

History

On 8 December 1941, following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States Congress declared war on Japan at the request of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. This was followed by Germany and Italy declaring war on the United States on 11 December, bringing the country into the European theatre.

The US-led Allied forces in the Pacific theatre against Japanese forces from 1941 to 1945. From 1943 to 1945, the US led and coordinated the Western Allies' war effort in Europe under the leadership of General Dwight D. Eisenhower.

The surprise attack on Pearl Harbor followed by Japan's swift attacks on Allied locations throughout the Pacific, resulted in major US losses in the first several months in the war, including losing control of the Philippines, Guam, Wake Island and several Aleutian islands including Attu and Kiska to Japanese forces. American naval forces attained some early successes against Japan. One was the bombing of Japanese industrial centres in the Doolittle Raid. Another was repelling a Japanese invasion of Port Moresby in New Guinea during the Battle of the Coral Sea.[55] A major turning point in the Pacific War was the Battle of Midway where American naval forces were outnumbered by Japanese forces that had been sent to Midway to draw out and destroy American aircraft carriers in the Pacific and seize control of Midway that would place Japanese forces in proximity to Hawaii.[56] However American forces managed to sink four of Japan's six large aircraft carriers that had initiated the attack on Pearl Harbor along with other attacks on Allied forces. Afterwards, the US began an offensive against Japanese-captured positions. The Guadalcanal Campaign from 1942 to 1943 was a major contention point where Allied and Japanese forces struggled to gain control of Guadalcanal.

Colonies and dependencies

In the Americas and the Pacific

The United States held multiple dependencies in the Americas, such as Alaska, the Panama Canal Zone, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

In the Pacific it held multiple island dependencies such as American Samoa, Guam, Hawaii, Midway Islands, Wake Island and others. These dependencies were directly involved in the Pacific campaign of the war.

In Asia
Philippine Scouts at Fort William McKinley firing a 37 mm anti-tank gun in training

The Commonwealth of the Philippines was a sovereign protectorate referred to as an "associated state" of the United States. From late 1941 to 1944, the Philippines was occupied by Japanese forces, who established the Second Philippine Republic as a client state that had nominal control over the country.

China

In the 1920s the Soviet Union provided military assistance to the Kuomintang, or the Nationalists, and helped reorganize their party along Leninist lines: a unification of party, state, and army. In exchange the Nationalists agreed to let members of the Chinese Communist Party join the Nationalists on an individual basis. However, following the nominal unification of China at the end of the Northern Expedition in 1928, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek purged leftists from his party and fought against the revolting Chinese Communist Party, former warlords, and other militarist factions. A fragmented China provided easy opportunities for Japan to gain territories piece by piece without engaging in total war. Following the 1931 Mukden Incident, the puppet state of Manchukuo was established. Throughout the early to mid-1930s, Chiang's anti-communist and anti-militarist campaigns continued while he fought small, incessant conflicts against Japan, usually followed by unfavorable settlements and concessions after military defeats.

In 1936 Chiang was forced to cease his anti-communist military campaigns after his kidnap and release by Zhang Xueliang, and reluctantly formed a nominal alliance with the Communists, while the Communists agreed to fight under the nominal command of the Nationalists against the Japanese. Following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 7 July 1937, China and Japan became embroiled in a full-scale war. The Soviet Union, wishing to keep China in the fight against Japan, supplied China with military assistance until 1941, when it signed a non-aggression pact with Japan. China formally declared war on Japan, as well as Germany and Italy, in December 1941, after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Continuous clashes between the Communists and Nationalists behind enemy lines cumulated in a major military conflict between these two former allies that effectively ended their cooperation against the Japanese, and China had been divided between the internationally recognized Nationalist China under the leadership of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and Communist China under the leadership of Mao Zedong until the Japanese surrendered in 1945.

Factions

Nationalists
Soldiers of the National Revolutionary Army associated with Nationalist China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War

Prior to the alliance of Germany and Italy to Japan, the Nationalist Government held close relations with both Germany and Italy. In the early 1930s, Sino-German cooperation existed between the Nationalist Government and Germany in military and industrial matters. Nazi Germany provided the largest proportion of Chinese arms imports and technical expertise. Relations between the Nationalist Government and Italy during the 1930s varied, however even after the Nationalist Government followed League of Nations sanctions against Italy for its invasion of Ethiopia, the international sanctions proved unsuccessful, and relations between the Fascist government in Italy and the Nationalist Government in China returned to normal shortly afterwards.[57] Up until 1936, Mussolini had provided the Nationalists with Italian military air and naval missions to help the Nationalists fight against Japanese incursions and communist insurgents.[57] Italy also held strong commercial interests and a strong commercial position in China supported by the Italian concession in Tianjin.[57] However, after 1936 the relationship between the Nationalist Government and Italy changed due to a Japanese diplomatic proposal to recognize the Italian Empire that included occupied Ethiopia within it in exchange for Italian recognition of Manchukuo, Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano accepted this offer by Japan, and on 23 October 1936 Japan recognized the Italian Empire and Italy recognized Manchukuo, as well as discussing increasing commercial links between Italy and Japan.[58]

The Nationalist Government held close relations with the United States. The United States opposed Japan's invasion of China in 1937 that it considered an illegal violation of China's sovereignty, and offered the Nationalist Government diplomatic, economic, and military assistance during its war against Japan. In particular, the United States sought to bring the Japanese war effort to a complete halt by imposing a full embargo on all trade between the United States to Japan, Japan was dependent on the United States for 80 per cent of its petroleum, resulting in an economic and military crisis for Japan that could not continue its war effort with China without access to petroleum.[59] In November 1940, American military aviator Claire Lee Chennault upon observing the dire situation in the air war between China and Japan, set out to organize a volunteer squadron of American fighter pilots to fight alongside the Chinese against Japan, known as the Flying Tigers.[60] US President Franklin D. Roosevelt accepted dispatching them to China in early 1941.[60] However, they only became operational shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

The Soviet Union recognised the Republic of China but urged reconciliation with the Chinese Communist Party and inclusion of Communists in the government.[61] The Soviet Union also urged military and cooperation between Nationalist China and Communist China during the war.[61]

Even though China had been fighting the longest among all the Allied powers, it only officially joined the Allies after the attack on Pearl Harbor, on 7 December 1941. China fought the Japanese Empire before joining the Allies in the Pacific War. Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek thought Allied victory was assured with the entrance of the United States into the war, and he declared war on Germany and the other Axis states. However, Allied aid remained low because the Burma Road was closed and the Allies suffered a series of military defeats against Japan early on in the campaign. General Sun Li-jen led the R.O.C. forces to the relief of 7,000 British forces trapped by the Japanese in the Battle of Yenangyaung. He then reconquered North Burma and re-established the land route to China by the Ledo Road. But the bulk of military aid did not arrive until the spring of 1945. More than 1.5 million Japanese troops were trapped in the China Theatre, troops that otherwise could have been deployed elsewhere if China had collapsed and made a separate peace.

Communists
Soldiers of the First Workers' and Peasants' Army associated with Communist China, during the Sino-Japanese War
Victorious Chinese Communist soldiers holding the flag of the Republic of China during the Hundred Regiments Offensive

Communist China had been tacitly supported by the Soviet Union since the 1920s, though the Soviet Union diplomatically recognised the Republic of China, Joseph Stalin supported cooperation between the Nationalists and the Communists—including pressuring the Nationalist Government to grant the Communists state and military positions in the government.[61] This was continued into the 1930s that fell in line with the Soviet Union's subversion policy of popular fronts to increase communists' influence in governments.[61] The Soviet Union urged military and cooperation between Soviet China and Nationalist China during China's war against Japan.[61] Initially Mao Zedong accepted the demands of the Soviet Union and in 1938 had recognized Chiang Kai-shek as the "leader" of the "Chinese people".[62] In turn, the Soviet Union accepted Mao's tactic of "continuous guerilla warfare" in the countryside that involved a goal of extending the Communist bases, even if it would result in increased tensions with the Nationalists.[62]

After the breakdown of their cooperation with the Nationalists in 1941, the Communists prospered and grew as the war against Japan dragged on, building up their sphere of influence wherever opportunities were presented, mainly through rural mass organizations, administrative, land and tax reform measures favoring poor peasants; while the Nationalists attempted to neutralize the spread of Communist influence by military blockade and fighting the Japanese at the same time.[63]

The Communist Party's position in China was boosted further upon the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in August 1945 against the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo and the Japanese Kwantung Army in China and Manchuria. Upon the intervention of the Soviet Union against Japan in World War II in 1945, Mao Zedong in April and May 1945 had planned to mobilize 150,000 to 250,000 soldiers from across China to work with forces of the Soviet Union in capturing Manchuria.[64]

Other affiliated state combatants

Albania

Albania was retroactively recognized as an "Associated Power" at the 1946 Paris conference[65] and officially signed the treaty ending WWII between the "Allied and Associated Powers" and Italy in Paris, on 10 February 1947.[66][67]

Australia

Australia was a sovereign Dominion under the Australian monarchy, as per the Statute of Westminster 1931. At the start of the war Australia followed Britain's foreign policies and accordingly declared war against Germany on 3 September 1939. Australian foreign policy became more independent after the Australian Labor Party formed government in October 1941, and Australia separately declared war against Finland, Hungary and Romania on 8 December 1941 and against Japan the next day.[68]

Belgium

Members of the Belgian Resistance with a Canadian soldier in Bruges, September 1944 during the Battle of the Scheldt

Before the war, Belgium had pursued a policy of neutrality and only became an Allied member after being invaded by Germany on 10 May 1940. During the ensuing fighting, Belgian forces fought alongside French and British forces against the invaders. While the British and French were struggling against the fast German advance elsewhere on the front, the Belgian forces were pushed into a pocket to the north. Finally, on 28 May, the King Leopold III surrendered himself and his military to the Germans, having decided the Allied cause was lost. The legal Belgian government was reformed as a government in exile in London. Belgian troops and pilots continued to fight on the Allied side as the Free Belgian Forces. Belgium itself was occupied, but a sizeable Resistance was formed and was loosely coordinated by the government in exile and other Allied powers.

British and Canadian troops arrived in Belgium in September 1944 and the capital, Brussels, was liberated on 6 September. Because of the Ardennes Offensive, the country was only fully liberated in early 1945.

Colonies and dependencies

Belgium held the colony of the Belgian Congo and the League of Nations mandate of Ruanda-Urundi. The Belgian Congo was not occupied and remained loyal to the Allies as an important economic asset while its deposits of uranium were useful to the Allied efforts to develop the atomic bomb. Troops from the Belgian Congo participated in the East African Campaign against the Italians. The colonial Force Publique also served in other theatres including Madagascar, the Middle-East, India and Burma within British units.

Brazil

Initially, Brazil maintained a position of neutrality, trading with both the Allies and the Axis, while Brazilian president Getúlio Vargas's quasi-Fascist policies indicated a leaning toward the Axis powers. However, as the war progressed, trade with the Axis countries became almost impossible and the United States initiated forceful diplomatic and economic efforts to bring Brazil onto the Allied side.[citation needed]

At the beginning of 1942, Brazil permitted the United States to set up air bases on its territory, especially in Natal, strategically located at the easternmost corner of the South American continent, and on 28 January the country severed diplomatic relations with Germany, Japan and Italy. After that, 36 Brazilian merchant ships were sunk by the German and Italian navies, which led the Brazilian government to declare war against Germany and Italy on 22 August 1942.

Brazil then sent a 25,700 strong Expeditionary Force to Europe that fought mainly on the Italian front, from September 1944 to May 1945. Also, the Brazilian Navy and Air Force acted in the Atlantic Ocean from the middle of 1942 until the end of the war. Brazil was the only South American country to send troops to fight in the European theatre in the Second World War.

Canada

Canada was a sovereign Dominion under the Canadian monarchy, as per the Statute of Westminster 1931. In a symbolic statement of autonomous foreign policy Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King delayed parliament's vote on a declaration of war for seven days after Britain had declared war. Canada was the last member of the Commonwealth to declare war on Germany on 10 September 1939.[69]

Cuba

Because of Cuba's geographical position at the entrance of the Gulf of Mexico, Havana's role as the principal trading port in the West Indies, and the country's natural resources, Cuba was an important participant in the American Theater of World War II, and subsequently one of the greatest beneficiaries of the United States' Lend-Lease program. Cuba declared war on the Axis powers in December 1941,[70] making it one of the first Latin American countries to enter the conflict, and by the war's end in 1945 its military had developed a reputation as being the most efficient and cooperative of all the Caribbean states.[71] On 15 May 1943, the Cuban patrol boat CS-13 sank the German submarine U-176.[72][73]

Czechoslovakia

In 1938, with the Munich Agreement, Czechoslovakia, the United Kingdom, and France sought to resolve German irredentist claims to the Sudetenland region. As a result, the incorporation of the Sudetenland into Germany began on 1 October 1938. Additionally, a small northeastern part of the border region known as Zaolzie was occupied by and annexed to Poland. Further, by the First Vienna Award, Hungary received southern territories of Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia.

A Slovak State was proclaimed on 14 March 1939, and the next day Hungary occupied and annexed the remainder of Carpathian Ruthenia, and the German Wehrmacht moved into the remainder of the Czech Lands. On 16 March 1939 the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was proclaimed after negotiations with Emil Hácha, who remained technically head of state with the title of State President. After a few months, former Czechoslovak President Beneš organized a committee in exile and sought diplomatic recognition as the legitimate government of the First Czechoslovak Republic. The committee's success in obtaining intelligence and coordinating actions by the Czechoslovak resistance led first Britain and then the other Allies to recognize it in 1941. In December 1941 the Czechoslovak government-in-exile declared war on the Axis powers. Czechoslovakian military units took part in the war.

Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic was one of the very few countries willing to accept mass Jewish immigration during World War II. At the Évian Conference, it offered to accept up to 100,000 Jewish refugees.[74] The DORSA (Dominican Republic Settlement Association) was formed with the assistance of the JDC, and helped settle Jews in Sosúa, on the northern coast. About 700 European Jews of Ashkenazi Jewish descent reached the settlement where each family received 33 hectares (82 acres) of land, 10 cows (plus 2 additional cows per children), a mule and a horse, and a US$10,000 loan (about 184,000 dollars at 2022 prices) at 1% interest.[75][76]

The Dominican Republic officially declared war on the Axis powers on 11 December 1941, after the attack on Pearl Harbor. However, the Caribbean state had already been engaged in war actions since before the formal declaration of war. Dominican sailboats and schooners had been attacked on previous occasions by German submarines as, highlighting the case of the 1,993-ton merchant ship, "San Rafael", which was making a trip from Tampa, Florida to Kingston, Jamaica, when 80 miles away from its final destination, it was torpedoed by the German submarine U-125, causing the command to abandon the ship by the commander. Although the crew of San Rafael managed to escape the event, it would be remembered by the Dominican press as a sign of the infamy of the German submarines and the danger they represented in the Caribbean.[77]

Recently, due to a research work carried out by the Embassy of the United States of America in Santo Domingo and the Institute of Dominican Studies of the City of New York (CUNY), documents of the Department of Defense were discovered in which it was confirmed that around 340 men and women of Dominican origin were part of the US Armed Forces during the World War II. Many of them received medals and other recognitions for their outstanding actions in combat.[78]

Ethiopia

The Ethiopian Empire was invaded by Italy on 3 October 1935. On 2 May 1936, Emperor Haile Selassie I fled into exile, just before the Italian occupation on 7 May. After the outbreak of World War II, the Ethiopian government-in-exile cooperated with the British during the British Invasion of Italian East Africa beginning in June 1940. Haile Selassie returned to his rule on 18 January 1941. Ethiopia declared war on Germany, Italy and Japan in December 1942.

Greece

Greece was invaded by Italy on 28 October 1940 and subsequently joined the Allies. The Greek Army managed to stop the Italian offensive from Italy's protectorate of Albania, and Greek forces pushed Italian forces back into Albania. However, after the German invasion of Greece in April 1941, German forces managed to occupy mainland Greece and, a month later, the island of Crete. The Greek government went into exile, while the country was placed under a puppet government and divided into occupation zones run by Italy, Germany and Bulgaria. From 1941, a strong resistance movement appeared, chiefly in the mountainous interior, where it established a "Free Greece" by mid-1943. Following the Italian capitulation in September 1943, the Italian zone was taken over by the Germans. Axis forces left mainland Greece in October 1944, although some Aegean islands, notably Crete, remained under German occupation until the end of the war.

Luxembourg

Before the war, Luxembourg had pursued a policy of neutrality and only became an Allied member after being invaded by Germany on 10 May 1940. The government in exile fled, winding up in England. It made Luxembourgish language broadcasts to the occupied country on BBC radio.[79] In 1944, the government in exile signed a treaty with the Belgian and Dutch governments, creating the Benelux Economic Union and also signed into the Bretton Woods system.

Mexico

Mexico declared war on Germany in 1942 after German submarines attacked the Mexican oil tankers Potrero del Llano and Faja de Oro that were transporting crude oil to the United States. These attacks prompted President Manuel Ávila Camacho to declare war on the Axis powers.

Mexico formed Escuadrón 201 fighter squadron as part of the Fuerza Aérea Expedicionaria Mexicana (FAEM—"Mexican Expeditionary Air Force"). The squadron was attached to the 58th Fighter Group of the United States Army Air Forces and carried out tactical air support missions during the liberation of the main Philippine island of Luzon in the summer of 1945.[80]

Some 300,000 Mexican citizens went to the United States to work on farms and factories. Some 15,000 U.S. nationals of Mexican origin and Mexican residents in the US enrolled in the US Armed Forces and fought in various fronts around the world.[81]

Netherlands

The Netherlands became an Allied member after being invaded on 10 May 1940 by Germany. During the ensuing campaign, the Netherlands were defeated and occupied by Germany. The Netherlands was liberated by Canadian, British, American and other allied forces during the campaigns of 1944 and 1945. The Princess Irene Brigade, formed from escapees from the German invasion, took part in several actions in 1944 in Arromanches and in 1945 in the Netherlands. Navy vessels saw action in the British Channel, the North Sea and the Mediterranean, generally as part of Royal Navy units. Dutch airmen flying British aircraft participated in the air war over Germany.

Colonies and dependencies

The Dutch East Indies (modern-day Indonesia) was the principal Dutch colony in Asia, and was seized by Japan in 1942. During the Dutch East Indies Campaign, the Netherlands played a significant role in the Allied effort to halt the Japanese advance as part of the American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Command. The ABDA fleet finally encountered the Japanese surface fleet at the Battle of Java Sea, at which Doorman gave the order to engage. During the ensuing battle the ABDA fleet suffered heavy losses, and was mostly destroyed after several naval battles around Java; the ABDA Command was later dissolved. The Japanese finally occupied the Dutch East Indies in February–March 1942. Dutch troops, aircraft and escaped ships continued to fight on the Allied side and also mounted a guerrilla campaign in Timor.

New Zealand

New Zealand was a sovereign Dominion under the New Zealand monarchy, as per the Statute of Westminster 1931. It quickly entered World War II, officially declaring war on Germany on 3 September 1939, just hours after Britain.[82] Unlike Australia, which had felt obligated to declare war, as it also had not ratified the Statute of Westminster, New Zealand did so as a sign of allegiance to Britain, and in recognition of Britain's abandonment of its former appeasement policy, which New Zealand had long opposed. This led to then Prime Minister Michael Joseph Savage declaring two days later:

"With gratitude for the past and confidence in the future we range ourselves without fear beside Britain. Where she goes, we go; where she stands, we stand. We are only a small and young nation, but we march with a union of hearts and souls to a common destiny."[83]

Norway

Norwegian soldiers on the Narvik front, May 1940

Because of its strategic location for control of the sea lanes in the North Sea and the Atlantic, both the Allies and Germany worried about the other side gaining control of the neutral country. Germany ultimately struck first with Operation Weserübung on 9 April 1940, resulting in the two-month-long Norwegian Campaign, which ended in a German victory and their war-long occupation of Norway.

Units of the Norwegian Armed Forces evacuated from Norway or raised abroad continued participating in the war from exile.

The Norwegian merchant fleet, then the fourth largest in the world, was organized into Nortraship to support the Allied cause. Nortraship was the world's largest shipping company, and at its height operated more than 1000 ships.

Norway was neutral when Germany invaded, and it is not clear when Norway became an Allied country. Great Britain, France and Polish forces in exile supported Norwegian forces against the invaders but without a specific agreement. Norway's cabinet signed a military agreement with Britain on 28 May 1941. This agreement allowed all Norwegian forces in exile to operate under UK command. Norwegian troops in exile should primarily be prepared for the liberation of Norway, but could also be used to defend Britain. At the end of the war German forces in Norway surrendered to British officers on 8 May and allied troops occupied Norway until 7 June.[84]

Poland

The Invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939, started the war in Europe, and the United Kingdom and France declared war on Germany on 3 September. Poland fielded the third biggest army among the European Allies, after the Soviet Union and United Kingdom, but before France.[85]

Polish Army suffered a series of defeats in the first days of the invasion. The Soviet Union unilaterally considered the flight to Romania of President Ignacy Mościcki and Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły on 17 September as evidence of debellatio causing the extinction of the Polish state, and consequently declared itself allowed to invade (according to the Soviet position: "to protect") Eastern Poland starting from the same day.[86] However, the Red Army had invaded the Second Polish Republic several hours before the Polish president fled to Romania. The Soviets invaded on 17 September at 3 a.m.,[87] while president Mościcki crossed the Polish-Romanian border at 21:45 on the same day.[88] The Polish military continued to fight against both the Germans and the Soviets, and the last major battle of the war, the Battle of Kock, ended at 1 a.m. on 6 October 1939 with the Independent Operational Group "Polesie," a field army, surrendering due to lack of ammunition. The country never officially surrendered to Nazi Germany, nor to the Soviet Union, primarily because neither of the totalitarian powers requested an official surrender, and continued the war effort under the Polish government in exile.

Polish partisan of the Home Army (AK), " Jędrusie" unit, holding a Browning wz.1928 light machine gun

Polish soldiers fought under their own flag but under the command of the British military. They were major contributors to the Allies in the theatre of war west of Germany and in the theatre of war east of Germany, with the Soviet Union. The Polish armed forces in the West created after the fall of Poland played minor roles in the Battle of France, and larger ones in the Italian and North African Campaigns.[89] The Soviet Union recognized the London-based government at first. But it broke diplomatic relations after the Katyn massacre of Polish nationals was revealed. In 1943, the Soviet Union organized the Polish People's Army under Zygmunt Berling, around which it constructed the post-war successor state People's Republic of Poland. The Polish People's Army formed in USSR took part in a number of battles of the Eastern Front, including the Battle of Berlin, the closing battle of the European theater of war.

The Home Army, loyal to the London-based government and the largest underground force in Europe, as well other smaller resistance organizations in occupied Poland provided intelligence to the Allies and led to uncovering of Nazi war crimes (i.e., death camps).

South Africa

South Africa was a sovereign Dominion under the South African monarchy, as per the Statute of Westminster 1931. South Africa held authority over the mandate of South-West Africa.

Yugoslavia

Partisans and Chetniks escorting captured Germans through Užice, autumn 1941

Yugoslavia entered the war on the Allied side after the invasion of Axis powers on 6 April 1941. The Royal Yugoslav Army was thoroughly defeated in less than two weeks and the country was occupied starting on 18 April. The Italian-backed Croatian fascist leader Ante Pavelić declared the Independent State of Croatia before the invasion was over. King Peter II and much of the Yugoslavian government had left the country. In the United Kingdom, they joined numerous other governments in exile from Nazi-occupied Europe. Beginning with the uprising in Herzegovina in June 1941, there was continuous anti-Axis resistance in Yugoslavia until the end of the war.

Resistance factions

Partisan leader Marshal Josip Broz Tito with Winston Churchill in 1944

Before the end of 1941, the anti-Axis resistance movement split between the royalist Chetniks and the communist Yugoslav Partisans of Josip Broz Tito who fought both against each other during the war and against the occupying forces. The Yugoslav Partisans managed to put up considerable resistance to the Axis occupation, forming various liberated territories during the war. In August 1943, there were over 30 Axis divisions on the territory of Yugoslavia, not including the forces of the Croatian puppet state and other quisling formations.[90] In 1944, the leading Allied powers persuaded Tito's Yugoslav Partisans and the royalist Yugoslav government led by Prime Minister Ivan Šubašić to sign the Treaty of Vis that created the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia.

Partisans

The Partisans were a major Yugoslav resistance movement against the Axis occupation and partition of Yugoslavia. Initially, the Partisans were in rivalry with the Chetniks over control of the resistance movement. However, the Partisans were recognized by both the Eastern and Western Allies as the primary resistance movement in 1943. After that, their strength increased rapidly, from 100,000 at the beginning of 1943 to over 648,000 in September 1944. In 1945 they were transformed into the Yugoslav army, organized in four field armies with 800,000[91] fighters.

Chetniks
Chetniks leader General Mihailovic with members of the U.S. military mission, Operation Halyard, 1944

The Chetniks, the short name given to the movement titled the Yugoslav Army of the Fatherland, were initially a major Allied Yugoslav resistance movement. However, due to their royalist and anti-communist views, Chetniks were considered to have begun collaborating with the Axis as a tactical move to focus on destroying their Partisan rivals. The Chetniks presented themselves as a Yugoslav movement, but were primarily a Serb movement. They reached their peak in 1943 with 93,000 fighters.[92] Their major contribution was Operation Halyard in 1944. In collaboration with the OSS, 413 Allied airmen shot down over Yugoslavia were rescued and evacuated.

Client and occupied states

British

Egypt

The Kingdom of Egypt was nominally sovereign since 1922 but effectively remained in the British sphere of influence; the British Mediterranean Fleet was stationed in Alexandria while British Army forces were based in the Suez Canal zone. Egypt was a neutral country for most of World War II, but the Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936 permitted British forces in Egypt to defend the Suez Canal. The United Kingdom controlled Egypt and used it as a major base for Allied operations throughout the region, especially the battles in North Africa against Italy and Germany. Its highest priorities were control of the Eastern Mediterranean, and especially keeping the Suez Canal open for merchant ships and for military connections with India and Australia.[93][page needed]

Egypt faced an Axis campaign led by Italian and German forces during the war. British frustration over King Farouk's reign over Egypt resulted in the Abdeen Palace incident of 1942 where British Army forces surrounded the royal palace and demanded a new government be established, nearly forcing the abdication of Farouk until he submitted to British demands. The Kingdom of Egypt joined the United Nations on 24 February 1945.[94]

India (British Raj)

At the outbreak of World War II, the British Indian Army numbered 205,000 men. Later during World War II, the Indian Army became the largest all-volunteer force in history, rising to over 2.5 million men in size.[95] These forces included tank, artillery and airborne forces.

Indian soldiers earned 30 Victoria Crosses during the Second World War. During the war, India suffered more civilian casualties than the United Kingdom, with the Bengal famine of 1943 estimated to have killed at least 2–3 million people.[96] In addition, India suffered 87,000 military casualties, more than any Crown colony but fewer than the United Kingdom, which suffered 382,000 military casualties.

Burma

Burma was a British colony at the start of World War II. It was later invaded by Japanese forces and that contributed to the Bengal Famine of 1943. For the native Burmese, it was an uprising against colonial rule, so some fought on the Japanese's side, but most minorities fought on the Allies side.[97] Burma also contributed resources such as rice and rubber.

Soviet sphere

Bulgaria

After a period of neutrality, Bulgaria joined the Axis powers from 1941 to 1944. The Orthodox Church and others convinced King Boris to not allow the Bulgarian Jews to be exported to concentration camps. The king died shortly afterwards, suspected of being poisoned after a visit to Germany. Bulgaria abandoned the Axis and joined the Allies when the Soviet Union invaded, offering no resistance to the incoming forces. Bulgarian troops then fought alongside Soviet Army in Yugoslavia, Hungary and Austria. In the 1947 peace treaties, Bulgaria gained a small area near the Black Sea from Romania, making it the only former German ally to gain territory from WWII.

Central Asian and Caucasian Republics

Among the Soviet forces during World War II, millions of troops were from the Soviet Central Asian Republics. They included 1,433,230 soldiers from Uzbekistan,[98] more than 1 million from Kazakhstan,[99] and more than 700,000 from Azerbaijan,[100] among other Central Asian Republics.

Mongolia

Mongolia fought against Japan during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 and the Soviet–Japanese War in August 1945 to protect its independence and to liberate Southern Mongolia from Japan and China. Mongolia had been a Soviet sphere of influence since the 1920s.

Poland

By 1944, Poland entered the Soviet sphere of influence with the establishment of Władysław Gomułka's communist regime. Polish forces fought alongside Soviet forces against Germany.

Romania

Romanian soldiers in Transylvania, September–October 1944

Romania had initially been a member of the Axis powers but switched allegiance upon facing invasion by the Soviet Union. In a radio broadcast to the Romanian people and army on the night of 23 August 1944 King Michael issued a cease-fire,[101] proclaimed Romania's loyalty to the Allies, announced the acceptance of an armistice (to be signed on 12 September)[102] offered by the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, and declared war on Germany.[103] The coup accelerated the Red Army's advance into Romania, but did not avert a rapid Soviet occupation and capture of about 130,000 Romanian soldiers, who were transported to the Soviet Union where many perished in prison camps.

The armistice was signed three weeks later on 12 September 1944, on terms virtually dictated by the Soviet Union.[101] Under the terms of the armistice, Romania announced its unconditional surrender[104] to the USSR and was placed under the occupation of the Allied forces with the Soviet Union as their representative, in control of the media, communication, post, and civil administration behind the front.[101]

Romanian troops then fought alongside the Soviet Army until the end of the war, reaching as far as Slovakia and Germany.

Tuva

The Tuvan People's Republic was a partially recognized state founded from the former Tuvan protectorate of Imperial Russia. It was a client state of the Soviet Union and was annexed into the Soviet Union in 1944.

Co-belligerent state combatants

Finland

Following the Moscow Armistice of September 1944, Finland fought on the side of the Allies against Axis forces until April 1945 in the Lapland War.

Italy

The dead bodies of Benito Mussolini, his mistress Clara Petacci, and several Fascist leaders, hanging for public display after they were executed by Italian partisans in 1945

Italy initially had been a leading member of the Axis powers, however after facing multiple military losses including the loss of all of Italy's colonies to advancing Allied forces, Duce Benito Mussolini was deposed and arrested in July 1943 by order of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy in co-operation with members of the Grand Council of Fascism who viewed Mussolini as having led Italy to ruin by allying with Germany in the war. Victor Emmanuel III dismantled the remaining apparatus of the Fascist regime and appointed Field Marshal Pietro Badoglio as Prime Minister of Italy. On 8 September 1943, Italy signed the Armistice of Cassibile with the Allies, ending Italy's war with the Allies and ending Italy's participation with the Axis powers. Expecting immediate German retaliation, Victor Emmanuel III and the Italian government relocated to southern Italy under Allied control. Germany viewed the Italian government's actions as an act of betrayal, and German forces immediately occupied all Italian territories outside of Allied control,[105] in some cases even massacring Italian troops.

Italy became a co-belligerent of the Allies, and the Italian Co-Belligerent Army was created to fight against the German occupation of Northern Italy, where German paratroopers rescued Mussolini from arrest and he was placed in charge of a German puppet state known as the Italian Social Republic (RSI). Italy descended into civil war until the end of hostilities after his deposition and arrest, with Fascists loyal to him allying with German forces and helping them against the Italian armistice government and partisans.[106]

Legacy

Charter of the United Nations

The Declaration by United Nations on 1 January 1942, signed by the Four Policemen – the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union and China – and 22 other nations laid the groundwork for the future of the United Nations.[107][108] At the Potsdam Conference of July–August 1945, Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman, proposed that the foreign ministers of China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States "should draft the peace treaties and boundary settlements of Europe", which led to the creation of the Council of Foreign Ministers of the "Big Five", and soon thereafter the establishment of those states as the permanent members of the UNSC.[109]

The first version of the flag of the United Nations, introduced in April 1945

The Charter of the United Nations was agreed to during the war at the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held between April and July 1945. The Charter was signed by 50 states on 26 June (Poland had its place reserved and later became the 51st "original" signatory),[citation needed] and was formally ratified shortly after the war on 24 October 1945. In 1944, the United Nations was formulated and negotiated among the delegations from the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and China at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference[110][111] where the formation and the permanent seats (for the "Big Five", China, France, the UK, US, and USSR) of the United Nations Security Council were decided. The Security Council met for the first time in the immediate aftermath of war on 17 January 1946.[112]

These are the original 51 signatories (UNSC permanent members are asterisked):

Cold War

Despite the successful creation of the United Nations, the alliance of the Soviet Union with the United States and with the United Kingdom ultimately broke down and evolved into the Cold War, which took place over the following half-century.[13][20]

Summary table

Allies of World War II – Declaration by United Nations and at the San Francisco Conference
Country Declaration by United Nations Declared war on the Axis San Francisco Conference
Argentina No Yes 1945 Yes
Australia Yes 1942 Yes 1939/40/42 Yes
Belgium Yes 1942 Yes 1941 Yes
Bolivia Yes 1943 Yes 1943 Yes
Brazil Yes 1943 Yes 1942 Yes
Cambodia No Yes
Canada Yes 1942 Yes 1939/40/41 Yes
Ceylon No Yes
Chile Yes 1945 Yes 1943/45 Yes
China Yes 1942 Yes 1941 Yes
Colombia Yes 1943 Yes 1943 Yes
Costa Rica Yes 1942 Yes 1941 Yes
Cuba Yes 1942 Yes 1941 Yes
Czechoslovakia Yes 1942 Yes 1941 Yes
Dominican Republic Yes 1942 Yes 1941 Yes
Ecuador Yes 1945 Yes 1945 Yes
Egypt Yes 1945 Yes 1945 Yes
El Salvador Yes 1942 Yes 1941 Yes
Ethiopia Yes 1942 Yes 1942 Yes
France Yes 1944 Yes 1939/40/41/44 Yes
Greece Yes 1942 Yes
Guatemala Yes 1942 Yes 1941 Yes
Haiti Yes 1942 Yes 1941 Yes
Honduras Yes 1942 Yes 1941 Yes
India (UK-appointed administration, 1858–1947) Yes 1942 Yes 1939 Yes
Indonesia No Yes
Iran Yes 1943 Yes 1943 Yes
Iraq Yes 1943 Yes
Laos No Yes
Lebanon Yes 1945 Yes 1945 Yes
Liberia Yes 1944 Yes 1943 Yes
Luxembourg Yes 1942 Yes
Mexico Yes 1942 Yes 1942 Yes
Netherlands Yes 1942 Yes
New Zealand Yes 1942 Yes 1939/40/42 Yes
Nicaragua Yes 1942 Yes 1941 Yes
Norway Yes 1942 Yes
Panama Yes 1942 Yes 1941 Yes
Paraguay Yes 1945 Yes 1945 Yes
Peru Yes 1945 Yes 1945 Yes
Philippines Yes 1942 Yes 1941 Yes
Poland Yes 1942 Yes 1941 No
Saudi Arabia Yes 1945 Yes 1945 Yes
South Africa Yes 1942 Yes 1939/40/41/42 Yes
Soviet Union Yes 1942 Yes
Syria Yes 1945 Yes 1945 Yes
Turkey Yes 1945 Yes 1945 Yes
United Kingdom Yes 1942 Yes 1939/41/42 Yes
United States Yes 1942 Yes 1941/42 Yes
Uruguay Yes 1945 Yes 1945 Yes
Venezuela Yes 1945 Yes 1945 Yes
Yugoslavia Yes 1942 Yes
Vietnam No Yes 1941 Yes

Timeline of allied nations entering the war

The following list denotes dates on which states declared war on the Axis powers, or on which an Axis power declared war on them. The Indian Empire had a status less independent than the Dominions.[113]

A British poster from 1941, promoting the greater alliance against Germany

1939

1940

1941

  • Yugoslavia: 6 April 1941 (Yugoslavia signed the Tripartite Pact, becoming a nominal member of the Axis on 25 March; but was attacked by the Axis on 6 April 1941.)[124]
U.S. government poster showing a friendly Soviet soldier, 1942

Provisional governments or governments-in exile that declared war against the Axis in 1941:

1942

1943

1944

1945

See also

Footnotes

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  2. ^ a b "The Big Three". The National WWII Museum New Orleans. Retrieved 4 April 2021. In World War II, the three great Allied powers—Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union—formed a Grand Alliance that was the key to victory. But the alliance partners did not share common political aims, and did not always agree on how the war should be fought.
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  4. ^ Hoopes, Townsend, and Douglas Brinkley. FDR and the Creation of the U.N. (Yale University Press, 1997)
  5. ^ Doenecke, Justus D.; Stoler, Mark A. (2005). Debating Franklin D. Roosevelt's foreign policies, 1933–1945. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780847694167.
  6. ^ Ian C. B. Dear and Michael Foot, eds. The Oxford Companion to World War II (2005), pp 29, 1176
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  8. ^ "Milestones: 1937–1945 - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
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Bibliography

Further reading

External links