Chongqing

Chongqing

Chongqing ( / ˌ ʊ ŋ ɪ ŋ / chawng- CHING [9] ou / ɔː ŋ ˌ ɪ ŋ / CHAWNG -ching ; [10] [11] chinês simplificado :重庆; chinês tradicional :重慶; pinyin : Chóngqìng ; Pronúncia Sichuanesa :[tsʰoŋ˨˩tɕʰin˨˩˦] , pronúncia padrão mandarim : [ʈʂʰʊ̌ŋ.tɕʰîŋ] ( ouvir ) ), alternadamente romanizado como Chungking ( / ʊ ŋ k ɪ ŋ / ), [12] é um município no sudoeste da China .

Chongqing
重庆市
Chungking, Ch'ung-ch'ing
Clockwise from top: Yuzhong District skyline, Chongqing Rail Transit Line 2 running along Jialing River, bridges under construction in Fengdu County, Chongqing Art Museum, hillside buildings in Hongyadong
No sentido horário a partir do topo: horizonte do distrito de Yuzhong , Chongqing Rail Transit Line 2 ao longo do rio Jialing , pontes em construção no condado de Fengdu , Chongqing Art Museum , edifícios nas encostas de Hongyadong
Location of Chongqing Municipality within China
Localização do município de Chongqing na China
Coordenadas (governo municipal de Chongqing): 29°33′49″N 106°33′01″E / 29.5637°N 106.5504°E / 29.5637; 106.5504 Coordenadas : 29°33′49″N 106°33′01″E  / 29.5637°N 106.5504°E / 29.5637; 106.5504
País China
Assentou c. 316 aC
Sede municipal Distrito de Yuzhong
Divisões
 - Nível do condado - Nível
 do município

25 distritos, 13 condados
1259 cidades, municípios e subdistritos
Governo
 • Tipo Município
 • Corpo Congresso Popular Municipal de Chongqing
 •  Secretário do PCC Chen Min'er
 •  Presidente do Congresso Zhang Xuan  [ zh ]
 • Prefeito Hu Henghua
 •  Presidente da CCPPC Wang Jiong
Área
[1]
 • Município 82.403 km 2 (31.816 milhas quadradas)
 • Área construída 5.472,8 km 2 (2.113,1 milhas quadradas)
Elevação
244 m (801 pés)
Elevação mais alta 2.797 m (9.177 pés)
População
 (censo de 2020 (total), 2018 (caso contrário)) [4]
 • Município 32.054.159
 • Densidade 390/km 2 (1.000/sq mi)
 •  Urbano
22.251.500 [nota 1] [2]
 • Área construída
8.750.000 [3]
Fuso horário UTC+8 ( CST )
Códigos postais
4000 00 – 4099 00
Código(s) de área 23
Código ISO 3166 CN-CQ
PIB 2021 [5]
 - Total ¥2,80 trilhões
US$ 432 bilhões
 - Per capita ¥ 86.885
$ 13.467
 • crescimento Increase8,3%
IDH (2019) 0,768 [6] ( 11º ) – alto
Abreviação CQ /; Yu
Flor da cidade Camélia [7]
Árvore da cidade Ficus lacor [8]
Local na rede Internet CQ.gov.cn (em chinês)
English.CQ.gov.cn
Chongqing
Chongqing (Chinese characters).svg
"Chongqing" em caracteres chineses simplificados (superior) e tradicionais (inferior)
Chinês simplificado 重庆
Chinês tradicional 重慶
Postal Chungking
Significado literal "Celebração Dupla"

Administrativamente, é um dos quatro municípios sob a administração direta do governo central da República Popular da China (os outros três são Pequim , Xangai e Tianjin ), e o único município localizado no interior. [13] O município de Chongqing, aproximadamente do tamanho da Áustria , inclui a cidade de Chongqing, bem como várias cidades descontíguas. Devido a um tecnicismo de classificação, o município de Chongqing pode reivindicar ser a maior cidade do mundo, embora não tenha a maior área urbana do mundo. Aeroporto Internacional de Chongqing Jiangbei, um importante centro de aviação que serve as áreas metropolitanas de Chongqing e o oeste da China , é um dos 50 aeroportos mais movimentados do mundo, [14] [15] e o sistema de monotrilhos da cidade é o sistema de monotrilhos mais longo e movimentado do mundo, com o maior número de estações (70). [16] [17]

Durante a era da República da China (ROC), Chongqing era um município localizado na província de Sichuan . Serviu como sua capital de guerra durante a Segunda Guerra Sino-Japonesa (1937-1945). O atual município foi separado da província de Sichuan em 14 de março de 1997 para ajudar a desenvolver as partes central e ocidental da China. [18] O município administrativo de Chongqing tem uma população de mais de 30 milhões. [19] A cidade de Chongqing, composta por nove distritos urbanos e suburbanos, tem uma população de 8.750.000 na estimativa de 2018. De acordo com o censo de 2010, Chongqing é o município chinês mais populoso, [20]e também o maior município controlado diretamente na China, contendo 26 distritos, oito condados e quatro condados autônomos .

A abreviatura oficial da cidade, " " (), foi aprovada pelo Conselho de Estado em 18 de abril de 1997. [21] Esta abreviatura é derivada do antigo nome de uma parte do rio Jialing que atravessa Chongqing e alimenta o rio Yangtzé .

Chongqing tem uma extensa história e uma rica cultura. Como uma das Cidades Centrais Nacionais da China, serve como centro financeiro da Bacia de Sichuan e do rio Yangtze . É um importante centro de fabricação e transporte; um relatório de julho de 2012 da Economist Intelligence Unit a descreveu como uma das "13 megalópoles emergentes" da China . [22] Chongqing é classificada como uma cidade Beta (segundo nível global) . [23] Chongqing é uma das 100 principais cidades do mundo em resultados de pesquisas científicas, conforme monitorado pelo Nature Index , [24] e abriga váriosuniversidades notáveis , incluindo Chongqing University , Southwest University , Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications , Southwest University of Political Science and Law , e Chongqing Normal University . [25] [26]

História

História antiga

A localização de Chongqing está historicamente associada ao Estado de Ba . Sua nova capital foi chamada primeiro Jiangzhou (江州). [27]

era imperial

Jiangzhou posteriormente permaneceu sob o governo de Qin Shi Huang durante a dinastia Qin , o sucessor do Estado Qin, bem como o governo dos imperadores da dinastia Han . Jiangzhou foi posteriormente renomeado durante as dinastias do Norte e do Sul para Prefeitura de Chu (楚州), depois novamente em 581 dC ( dinastia Sui ) para Prefeitura de Yu (渝州), e mais tarde em 1102 durante Song do Norte para Prefeitura de Gong (恭州). [28] O nome Yu, no entanto, sobrevive até hoje como uma abreviação de Chongqing, bem como para o centro histórico da cidade, onde ficava a cidade velha; seu nome é Yuzhong (渝中, Centro Yu). [27] Recebeu seu nome atual em 1189, depois que o príncipe Zhao Dun da dinastia Song do Sul descreveu sua coroação como rei e depois imperador Guangzong como uma "dupla celebração" ( chinês simplificado :双重喜庆; ​​chinês tradicional :雙重喜慶; pinyin : shuāngchóng xǐqìng , ou chóngqìng em suma). Para marcar a ocasião de sua entronização, a Prefeitura de Yu foi, portanto, convertida em Chongqing Fu .

Em 1362, ( dinastia Yuan ), Ming Yuzhen , um líder rebelde camponês, estabeleceu o Reino Daxia (大夏) em Chongqing por um curto período de tempo. [29] Em 1621 ( dinastia Ming ), outro reino de curta duração de Daliang (大梁) foi estabelecido por She Chongming (奢崇明) com Chongqing como sua capital. [30] Em 1644, após a queda da dinastia Ming para um exército rebelde, Chongqing, juntamente com o resto de Sichuan , foi capturado por Zhang Xianzhong., que teria massacrado um grande número de pessoas em Sichuan e despovoado a província, em parte fazendo com que muitas pessoas fugissem em segurança em outros lugares. Os manchus mais tarde conquistaram a província e, durante a dinastia Qing , a imigração para Chongqing e Sichuan ocorreu com o apoio do imperador Qing. [31]

Em 1890, o Consulado Geral Britânico foi aberto em Chongqing. [32] No ano seguinte, a cidade tornou-se o primeiro porto de comércio interior aberto a estrangeiros, com a ressalva de que os navios estrangeiros não deveriam ter liberdade para negociar lá até que os vapores de propriedade chinesa conseguissem subir o rio. Essa restrição foi abolida pelo Tratado de Shimonoseki em 1895, que declarou a cidade aberta nos mesmos termos que outros portos, embora só em 1907 um navio a vapor fizesse a viagem sem a ajuda de caminhões manuais. [33] De 1896 a 1904, os consulados americano, alemão, francês e japonês foram abertos em Chongqing. [34] [35] [36] [37]

Capital de guerra provisória da República da China

Uma cena de rua em Chongqing, c. 1944

Durante e após a Segunda Guerra Sino-Japonesa , de novembro de 1937 a maio de 1946, foi a capital provisória do Generalíssimo Chiang Kai-shek . Depois que o general e o exército restante viveram lá por um tempo após sua retirada em 1938 da capital anterior de Wuhan , foi formalmente declarada a segunda capital (陪都, pèi dū ) em 6 de setembro de 1940. [38] Depois da Grã-Bretanha, o Estados Unidos e outros Aliados entraram na guerra na Ásia em dezembro de 1941, um dos vice-comandantes dos Aliados de operações no Sudeste Asiático (Comando do Sudeste Asiático SEAC), Joseph Stilwell, foi sediado na cidade. Isso a tornou uma cidade de importância mundial na luta contra as potências do Eixo, juntamente com Londres , Moscou e Washington, DC [39] A cidade também foi visitada por Lord Louis Mountbatten , o Comandante Supremo do SEAC que estava sediado no Ceilão, moderno dia Sri Lanka. Chiang Kai Shek como Comandante Supremo na China trabalhou em estreita colaboração com Stilwell. [40] De 1938 a 1943, a cidade sofreu com as campanhas de bombardeio continuamente massivas da Marinha Imperial Japonesa e das Forças Aéreas do Exército ; batalhas das quais foram travadas inteiramente pela Força Aérea Chinesaesquadrões e unidades de artilharia antiaérea. [41] [42] Muitas vidas foram salvas pelos abrigos antiaéreos que aproveitaram o terreno montanhoso. Chongqing foi aclamada como a "Cidade dos Heróis" devido aos espíritos indomáveis ​​de seu povo, bem como suas contribuições e sacrifícios durante a Guerra de Resistência-Segunda Guerra Mundial . Muitas fábricas e universidades foram transferidas do leste da China e, finalmente, para Chongqing durante anos de reveses na guerra, transformando esta cidade de porto interior em uma cidade fortemente industrializada. No final de novembro de 1949, o governo nacionalista do KMT se retirou da cidade. [43]

Situação do município

Uma vista do pôr do sol de Jiefangbei CBD e Hongya Cave, tirada em 2017

Em 14 de março de 1997, o Oitavo Congresso Nacional do Povo decidiu fundir a cidade subprovincial com as prefeituras adjacentes de Fuling , Wanxian e Qianjiang que governavam em nome da província desde setembro de 1996. A entidade única resultante tornou-se o município de Chongqing, contendo 30.020.000 pessoas em quarenta e três antigos condados (sem níveis políticos intermediários). O município tornou-se a ponta de lança do esforço da China para desenvolver suas regiões ocidentais e coordenar o reassentamento dos moradores das áreas do reservatório da Barragem das Três Gargantasprojeto. Sua primeira cerimônia oficial ocorreu em 18 de junho de 1997. Em 8 de fevereiro de 2010, Chongqing tornou-se uma das quatro cidades centrais/núcleos nacionais , as outras três são Pequim, Xangai e Tianjin. [44] Em 18 de junho de 2010, a Nova Área de Liangjiang foi estabelecida em Chongqing, que era a terceira nova área de nível estadual no momento de sua criação. [45]

Geografia

Mapa incluindo Chongqing (rotulado como 重慶CH'UNG-CH'ING (CHUNGKING)) ( AMS , 1954)

Geografia física e topografia

Topografia de Chongqing

Chongqing está situado na área de transição entre o planalto tibetano e a planície no curso médio e inferior do rio Yangtze, na zona de clima subtropical , muitas vezes varrida por monções úmidas . Muitas vezes chove à noite no final da primavera e início do verão e, portanto, a cidade é famosa por sua "chuva noturna nas montanhas Ba", conforme descrito por poemas ao longo da história chinesa, incluindo o famoso Escrito em uma noite chuvosa - Uma carta ao norte por Li Shangyin . [46] O município atinge um comprimento máximo de 470 km (290 milhas) de leste a oeste, e uma largura máxima de 450 km (280 milhas) de norte a sul. [47]Faz fronteira com as seguintes províncias: Hubei no leste, Hunan no sudeste, Guizhou no sul, Sichuan no oeste e noroeste e Shaanxi ao norte no canto nordeste. [48]

Qutang Gorge no rio Yangtze

Chongqing cobre uma grande área atravessada por rios e montanhas. As montanhas Daba ficam no norte, as montanhas Wu no leste, as montanhas Wuling no sudeste e as montanhas Dalou no sul. Toda a área desce de norte a sul em direção ao vale do rio Yangtze , com subidas e descidas acentuadas. A área é caracterizada por um grande maciço geológico , de montanhas e colinas, com grandes áreas inclinadas em diferentes alturas. [49] A paisagem cárstica típica é comum nesta área, e florestas de pedra, numerosas coleções de picos, cavernas e vales calcários podem ser encontrados em muitos lugares. oLongshuixia Gap (龙水峡地缝), com suas pontes em arco naturais , tornou a região uma atração turística popular. O rio Yangtze atravessa toda a área de oeste a leste, cobrindo um curso de 665 km (413 milhas), cortando as montanhas Wu em três lugares e formando as conhecidas Três Gargantas : o Qutang, o Wuxia e os desfiladeiros de Xiling . [50] Vindo do noroeste e passando pelas "Três Gargantas Menores de Jialing" de Libi, Wentang e Guanyin, o rio Jialing se junta ao Yangtze em Chongqing. [51]

Poema de Li Bai de Baidi Cheng de Chongqing

Deixando ao amanhecer o Imperador Branco coroado de nuvens,
naveguei mil li por desfiladeiros em um dia.
Com o adeus dos macacos as margens do rio são barulhentas,
Meu esquife deixou dez mil montanhas longe.

A área urbana central de Chongqing, ou Chongqing propriamente dita, é uma cidade de características únicas. Construída sobre montanhas e parcialmente cercada pelos rios Yangtze e Jialing, é conhecida como "cidade de montanha" e "cidade sobre rios". [52] A cena noturna da cidade é muito iluminada, com milhões de luzes e seu reflexo nos rios. Com suas características topográficas especiais , Chongqing tem um cenário único de montanhas, rios, florestas, nascentes, cachoeiras, desfiladeiros e cavernas. Li Bai , um famoso poeta da dinastia Tang , inspirou-se na paisagem natural e escreveu este epigrama . [53]

Especificamente, a área urbana central está localizada em uma enorme área dobrável. O distrito de Yuzhong, o distrito de Nan'an, o distrito de Shapingba e o distrito de Jiangbei estão localizados em um grande sinclinal . E a "Montanha do Sul de Chongqing" (Montanha Tongluo), juntamente com a Montanha Zhongliang, são dois anticlinais próximos ao sinclinal do centro da cidade. [54]

As Montanhas Zhongliang (中梁山) e as Montanhas Tongluo (铜锣山) formam aproximadamente os limites leste e oeste da área urbana de Chongqing. O ponto mais alto no centro da cidade é o topo de Eling Hill, que é uma colina sinclinal menor que separa o rio Yangtze e o rio Jialing. A elevação de Eling Hill é de 379 m (1.243 pés). O ponto mais baixo é o Chaotian Gate, onde os dois rios se fundem. A altitude é de 160 m (520 pés). A altura média da área é de 259 m (850 pés). No entanto, existem várias montanhas altas fora do centro de Chongqing, como a Montanha Wugong Ling, com altitude de 1.709,4 m (5.608 pés), em Jiangjin.

Clima

Na primavera e no outono, o centro de Chongqing costuma ficar envolto em neblina.

Chongqing tem um clima subtropical úmido ( Köppen Cfa ), na fronteira com um clima subtropical úmido de monções ( Köppen Cwa ) e durante a maior parte do ano apresenta umidade relativa muito alta, com todos os meses acima de 75%. Conhecido como um dos " Três Fornos " do Rio Yangtze, junto com Wuhan e Nanjing , seus verões são longos e estão entre os mais quentes e úmidos da China, com máximas de 33 a 34°C (91 a 93°F) em julho e agosto na área urbana. [55] Os invernos são curtos e um tanto amenos, mas úmidos e nublados. A localização da cidade na Bacia de Sichuanfaz com que tenha um dos mais baixos totais anuais de insolação nacionalmente, com apenas 1.055 horas, menor do que grande parte do norte da Europa; a porcentagem mensal de sol possível na cidade varia de meros 8% em dezembro e janeiro a 48% em agosto. Os extremos desde 1951 variaram de -1,8 ° C (29 ° F) em 15 de dezembro de 1975 (o recorde não oficial de -2,5 ° C (27 ° F) foi estabelecido em 8 de fevereiro de 1943) a 43,0 ° C (109 ° F) em 15 Agosto de 2006 (o recorde não oficial de 44,0 ° C (111 ° F) foi estabelecido em 8 e 9 de agosto de 1933). [56]

Chongqing, com mais de 100 dias de neblina por ano, [57] é conhecida como a "Cidade da Neblina" (雾都); isso ocorre porque na primavera e no outono, uma espessa camada de neblina o envolve por 68 dias por ano. [58] [59] Durante a Segunda Guerra Sino-Japonesa , este clima especial possivelmente desempenhou um papel na proteção da cidade de ser invadida pelo Exército Imperial Japonês .

Conforme exemplificado pelo condado de Youyang abaixo, as condições são geralmente mais frias na parte sudeste do município devido às elevações mais altas lá.

Dados climáticos para Chongqing (Distrito de Shapingba, 1981–2010 normais)
Mês janeiro fevereiro março abril Maio junho julho agosto setembro Outubro novembro dezembro Ano
Registrar alta °C (°F) 18,8
(65,8)
24,6
(76,3)
34,0
(93,2)
36,5
(97,7)
38,9
(102,0)
39,8
(103,6)
42,0
(107,6)
43,0
(109,4)
41,9
(107,4)
35,1
(95,2)
29,2
(84,6)
21,5
(70,7)
43,0
(109,4)
Média alta °C (°F) 10,3
(50,5)
12,9
(55,2)
17,7
(63,9)
23,0
(73,4)
27,2
(81,0)
29,4
(84,9)
33,0
(91,4)
33,2
(91,8)
28,3
(82,9)
21,7
(71,1)
17,1
(62,8)
11,5
(52,7)
22,1
(71,8)
Média diária °C (°F) 7,9
(46,2)
10,0
(50,0)
13,8
(56,8)
18,6
(65,5)
22,6
(72,7)
25,1
(77,2)
28,3
(82,9)
28,3
(82,9)
24,1
(75,4)
18,6
(65,5)
14,2
(57,6)
9,2
(48,6)
18,4
(65,1)
Média baixa °C (°F) 6,2
(43,2)
8,0
(46,4)
11,2
(52,2)
15,4
(59,7)
19,3
(66,7)
22,1
(71,8)
24,8
(76,6)
24,7
(76,5)
21,2
(70,2)
16,5
(61,7)
12,3
(54,1)
7,7
(45,9)
15,8
(60,4)
Gravar °C baixo (°F) −1,8
(28,8)
−0,8
(30,6)
1,2
(34,2)
2,8
(37,0)
10,8
(51,4)
15,5
(59,9)
19,2
(66,6)
17,8
(64,0)
14,3
(57,7)
6,9
(44,4)
0,7
(33,3)
−1,7
(28,9)
−1,8
(28,8)
Precipitação média mm (polegadas) 19,7
(0,78)
23,3
(0,92)
43,2
(1,70)
95,2
(3,75)
145,9
(5,74)
192,6
(7,58)
186,0
(7,32)
137,9
(5,43)
105,8
(4,17)
85,8
(3,38)
48,3
(1,90)
24,3
(0,96)
1.108
(43,63)
Dias de precipitação média (≥ 0,1 mm) 10,0 9,8 11,9 14.3 15,5 15,7 12,5 11.3 12,7 16.1 11,5 9,8 151,1
Umidade relativa média ( %) 84 80 77 77 77 81 76 74 79 85 84 85 80
Horas médias mensais de sol 20,6 29,7 64,9 93,6 109,4 97,7 158,6 167,0 106,6 50,4 35,9 20,4 954,8
Porcentagem de sol possível 8 11 18 25 26 26 42 48 28 18 13 8 24
Índice ultravioleta médio 4 6 8 10 11 12 12 11 10 7 5 4 8
Fonte 1: Administração Meteorológica da China [60] [61]
Fonte 2: Atlas Meteorológico (uv) [62]
Dados climáticos para Youyang Tujia e Miao Autonomous County (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.5
(45.5)
8.8
(47.8)
13.0
(55.4)
19.7
(67.5)
23.9
(75.0)
26.9
(80.4)
30.0
(86.0)
30.2
(86.4)
25.6
(78.1)
20.3
(68.5)
15.1
(59.2)
10.3
(50.5)
19.3
(66.7)
Average low °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7)
2.8
(37.0)
6.3
(43.3)
11.5
(52.7)
15.6
(60.1)
19.2
(66.6)
21.5
(70.7)
21.1
(70.0)
17.5
(63.5)
12.8
(55.0)
8.0
(46.4)
3.4
(38.1)
11.8
(53.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 29.1
(1.15)
31.6
(1.24)
56.7
(2.23)
128.5
(5.06)
195.1
(7.68)
242.3
(9.54)
178.1
(7.01)
145.0
(5.71)
122.5
(4.82)
109.5
(4.31)
67.9
(2.67)
25.4
(1.00)
1,331.7
(52.42)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12.0 12.2 15.9 16.9 18.1 17.1 15.4 14.4 13.0 15.1 11.6 9.7 171.4
Average relative humidity (%) 77 77 79 80 81 83 82 81 81 82 79 76 80
Mean monthly sunshine hours 42.5 37.4 47.6 83.3 102.7 101.4 155.9 171.7 112.3 88.7 68.7 64.4 1,076.6
Percent possible sunshine 13 12 13 22 25 24 37 42 31 25 21 20 24.3
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Paisagem urbana

Panorama do horizonte do distrito de Yuzhong em 2013

Política

O Grande Salão do Povo serve como local para grandes conferências políticas em Chongqing

Chongqing é, desde 1997, um município de controle direto na estrutura administrativa chinesa, tornando-se uma divisão de nível provincial com importância política proporcional. O principal líder do município é o secretário do comitê municipal do Partido Comunista Chinês ("chefe do partido"), que, desde 2007, também ocupa uma cadeira no Politburo do Partido Comunista Chinês , o segundo mais alto conselho governante do país. Sob a nomenklatura de inspiração soviéticasistema de nomeações, os indivíduos são nomeados para o cargo pela liderança central do Partido Comunista e concedido a um funcionário com base na antiguidade e adesão à ortodoxia do partido, geralmente dado a um indivíduo com experiência regional anterior em outros lugares da China e quase nunca um nativo de Chongqing. Indivíduos notáveis ​​que ocuparam o cargo de secretário municipal do Partido incluem He Guoqiang , Wang Yang , Bo Xilai , Zhang Dejiang e Sun Zhengcai , os três últimos foram membros do Politburo durante seu mandato como chefe do partido. O chefe do partido chefia a comissão municipal permanente do partido , a comissão de factoConselho Superior do Município. O comitê permanente é normalmente composto por 13 indivíduos que incluem os chefes partidários de subdivisões importantes e outras figuras importantes do partido local e da organização governamental, bem como um representante militar.

O Governo Popular municipal funciona como a autoridade administrativa do dia-a-dia, e é chefiado pelo prefeito, que é coadjuvado por vários vice-prefeitos e assistentes de prefeitos. Cada vice-prefeito tem jurisdição sobre departamentos municipais específicos. O prefeito é o segundo mais alto funcionário do município. O prefeito geralmente representa a cidade quando os visitantes estrangeiros visitam. [63]

O município também possui um Congresso Popular, teoricamente eleito por Congressos Populares de nível inferior. O Congresso Popular nomeia nominalmente o prefeito e aprova as indicações de outros funcionários do governo. O Congresso Popular, como os de outras jurisdições provinciais, é geralmente visto como um corpo simbólico. Reúne-se integralmente uma vez por ano para aprovar as resoluções patrocinadas pelos partidos e os regulamentos locais e confirmar devidamente as nomeações aprovadas pelos partidos. Ocasionalmente, o Congresso Popular pode ser um local de discussão sobre questões municipais, embora isso dependa das ações de cada delegado. O Congresso Popular municipal é chefiado por um ex-funcionário municipal, geralmente no final dos 50 ou 60 anos, com uma longa carreira política anterior em Chongqing. A Conferência Consultiva Política Municipal (zhengxie ) se reúne mais ou menos ao mesmo tempo que o Congresso do Povo. Seu papel é aconselhar sobre questões políticas. O zhengxie é chefiado por um líder que normalmente é um ex-funcionário municipal ou regional com uma longa carreira no partido e na burocracia do governo.

Militares

Chongqing foi a capital de guerra da China durante a Segunda Guerra Sino-Japonesa (ou seja, a Segunda Guerra Mundial), e de 1938 a 1946, [64] a sede da administração do governo da República da China antes de sua partida para Nanjing e depois para Taiwan . [65] Após a eventual derrota na Batalha de Wuhan , o general Chiang-Kai Shek e o exército foram forçados a usá-la como base de resistência a partir de 1938. [38] Ele também contém um museu militar com o nome do herói chinês da Guerra da Coréia , Qiu Shaoyun . [66]

Chongqing costumava ser a sede do 13º Grupo de Exércitos do Exército de Libertação Popular , um dos dois exércitos de grupo que anteriormente compunham a Região Militar de Chengdu , que em 2016 foi reorganizada no Comando do Teatro Ocidental . [67]

divisões administrativas

Chongqing é o maior dos quatro municípios controlados diretamente da República Popular da China. O município está dividido em 38 subdivisões (3 foram abolidas em 1997, e os distritos de Wansheng e Shuangqiao foram abolidos em outubro de 2011 [68] ), consistindo em 26 distritos, 8 condados e 4 condados autônomos. Os limites do município de Chongqing chegam muito mais longe no interior da cidade do que os limites dos outros três municípios de nível provincial (Pequim, Xangai e Tianjin ), e grande parte de sua área administrativa, que se estende por mais de 80.000 km 2 (30.900 sq mi), é rural. No final do ano de 2018, a população total é de 31,02 milhões.

Divisões administrativas de Chongqing
Código de divisão [69] Divisão Área em km 2 [70] [ citação completa necessária ] População total 2010 [71] População da área urbana
2010 [72]
Assento Código postal Subdivisões [73] [ citação completa necessária ]
Subdistritos Cidades Municípios
[n 1]
Municípios étnicos Comunidades residenciais Aldeias
500000 Chongqing 82403 28.846.170 15295803 Yuzhong 400000 181 567 233 14 2324 5235
500101 Wanzhou 3457 1.563.050 859.662 Subdistrito de Chenjiaba 404000 11 29 10 2 187 448
500102 Fuling 2946 1.066.714 595.224 Subdistrito de Lizhi 408000 8 12 6 108 310
500103 Yuzhong 23 630.090 Subdistrito de Qixinggang 400000 12 78
500104 Dadukou 102 301.042 280.512 Subdistrito de Xinshancun 400000 5 2 48 32
500105 Jiangbei 221 738.003 672.545 Subdistrito de Cutan 400000 9 3 88 48
500106 Shapingba 396 1.000.013 900.568 Subdistrito de Qinjiagang 400000 18 8 140 86
500107 Jiulongpo 431 1.084.419 939.349 Subdistrito de Yangjiaping 400000 7 11 107 105
500108 Nan'an 263 759.570 683.717 Subdistrito de Tianwen 400000 7 7 85 61
500109 Beibe 754 680.360 501.822 Subdistrito de Beiwenquan 400700 5 12 63 117
500110 Qijiang 2747 1.056.817 513.935 Subdistrito de Gunan 400800 5 25 99 365
500111 Dazu 1433 721.359 315.183 Subdistrito de Tangxiang 400900 3 24 103 197
500112 Yubei 1452 1.345.410 985.918 Subdistrito de Shuangfengqiao 401100 14 12 155 215
500113 Banan 1834 918.692 669.269 Subdistrito de Longzhouwan 401300 8 14 87 198
500114 Qianjiang 2397 445.012 173.997 Subdistrito de Chengxi 409700 6 12 12 80 138
500115 Changshou 1423 770.009 408.261 Subdistrito de Fengcheng 401200 4 14 31 223
500116 Jiangjin 3200 1.233.149 686.189 Subdistrito de Jijiang 402200 4 24 85 180
500117 Hechuan 2356 1.293.028 721.753 Subdistrito da Rua Nanjin 401500 7 23 61 327
500118 Yongchuan 1576 1.024.708 582.769 Subdistrito de Zhongshan Road 402100 7 16 52 208
500119 Nanchuan 2602 534.329 255.045 Subdistrito de Dongcheng 408400 3 15 15 58 185
500120 Bishan 912 586.034 246.425 Subdistrito de Bicheng 402700 6 9 43 142
500151 Tongliang 1342 600.086 248.962 Subdistrito de Bachuan 402500 3 25 57 269
500152 Tonganês 1585 639.985 247.084 Subdistrito de Guilin 402600 2 20 21 281
500153 Rongchang 1079 661.253 271.232 Subdistrito de Changyuan 402400 6 15 75 92
500154 Kaizhou 3959 1.160.336 416.415 Subdistrito de Hanfeng 405400 7 26 7 78 435
500155 Liangping 1890 687.525 235.753 Subdistrito de Liangshan 405200 2 26 7 33 310
500156 Wulong 2872 351.038 115.823 cidade de Gangkou 408500 12 10 4 24 184
500229 Chengku Co. 3286 192.967 49.039 Subdistrito de Gecheng 405900 2 6 17 22 184
500230 Fengdu Co. 2896 649.182 224.003 Subdistrito de Sanhe 408200 2 23 5 53 277
500231 Dianjiang Co. 1518 704.458 241.424 Subdistrito de Guixi 408300 2 23 2 62 236
500233 Zhong Co. 2184 751.424 247.406 cidade de Zhongzhou 404300 22 5 1 49 317
500235 Yunyang Co. 3634 912.912 293.636 Subdistrito de Shuangjiang 404500 4 22 15 1 87 391
500236 Fengjie Co. 4087 834.259 269.302 cidade de Yong'an 404600 19 8 4 54 332
500237 Wushan Co. 2958 495.072 148.597 Subdistrito de Gaotang 404700 11 12 2 30 308
500238 Wuxi Co. 4030 414.073 105.111 Subdistrito de Baichang 405800 2 15 16 38 292
500240 Shizu Co. 3013 415.050 134.173 cidade de Nanbin 409100 17 15 29 213
500241 Xiushan Co. 2450 501.590 150.566 Subdistrito de Zhonghe 409900 14 18 59 208
500242 Youyang Co. 5173 578.058 137.635 cidade de Taohuayuan 409800 15 23 8 270
500243 Pengshui Co. 3903 545.094 137.409 Subdistrito de Hanjia 409600 11 28 55 241
  1. ^ Including other township related subdivisions.

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of districts
# City Urban area[72] District area[72] Census date
1 Chongqing[i] 6,263,790 7,457,599 2010-11-01
2 Wanzhou 859,662 1,563,050 2010-11-01
3 Hechuan 721,753 1,293,028 2010-11-01
4 Jiangjin 686,189 1,233,149 2010-11-01
5 Fuling 595,224 1,066,714 2010-11-01
6 Yongchuan 582,769 1,024,708 2010-11-01
7 Qijiang[ii] 513,935 1,056,817 2010-11-01
(8) Kaizhou[iii] 416,415 1,160,336 2010-11-01
9 Changshou 408,261 770,009 2010-11-01
10 Dazu[iv] 315,183 721,359 2010-11-01
(11) Rongchang[v] 271,232 661,253 2010-11-01
12 Nanchuan 255,045 534,329 2010-11-01
(13) Tongliang[vi] 248,962 600,086 2010-11-01
(14) Tongnan[vii] 247,084 639,985 2010-11-01
(15) Bishan[viii] 246,425 586,034 2010-11-01
(16) Liangping[ix] 235,753 687,525 2010-11-01
17 Qianjiang 173,997 445,012 2010-11-01
(18) Wulong[x] 115,823 351,038 2010-11-01
  1. ^ Chongqing core districts are consist of nine districts: Yuzhong, Dadukou, Jiangbei, Shapingba, Jiulongpo, Nan'an, Beibei, Yubei, & Banan.
  2. ^ Wansheng & Qijiang County currently known as Qijiang after census.
  3. ^ Kaizhou County is currently known as Kaizhou after census.
  4. ^ Shuangqiao & Dazu County currently known as Dazu after census.
  5. ^ Rongchang County is currently known as Rongchang after census.
  6. ^ Tongliang County is currently known as Tongliang after census.
  7. ^ Tongnan County is currently known as Tongnan after census.
  8. ^ Bishan County is currently known as Bishan after census.
  9. ^ Liangping County is currently known as Liangping after census.
  10. ^ Wulong County is currently known as Wulong after census.

a Indicates with which district the division was associated below prior to the merging of Chongqing, Fuling, Wanxian (now Wanzhou) and Qianjiang in 1997.

Central Chongqing

Jiefangbei CBD, Yuzhong Peninsula of Chongqing at night

The main urban area of Chongqing city (重庆主城区) spans approximately 5,473 km2 (2,113 sq mi), and includes the following nine districts:[74][75]

  • Yuzhong District (渝中区, or "Central Chongqing District"), the central and most densely populated district, where government and international business offices and the city's best shopping are located in the district's Jeifangbei CBD area. Yuzhong is located on the peninsula surrounded by Eling Hill, Yangtze River and Jialing River.
  • Jiangbei District (江北区, or "River North District"), located to the north of Jialing River.
  • Shapingba District (沙坪坝区), roughly located between Jialing River and Zhongliang Mountain.
  • Jiulongpo District (九龙坡区), roughly located between Yangtze River and Zhongliang Mountain.
  • Nan'an District (南岸区, or "Southern Bank District"), located on the south side of Yangtze River.
  • Dadukou District (大渡口区)
  • Banan District (巴南区, or "Southern Chongqing District"). Previously called Ba County, and changed to the current name in 1994. Its northern area merged into Chongqing, and its capital town Yudong is a satellite city of Chongqing.
  • Yubei District (渝北区, or "Northern Chongqing District"). Previously called Jiangbei County, and changed into the current name in 1994. Its southern area merged into Chongqing, and the capital town Lianglu Town is a satellite city of Chongqing.
  • Beibei District (北碚区), a satellite city northwest of Chongqing.

Demographics

Population

Jiefangbei (People's Liberation Monument), the landmark and center of Chongqing
Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1949 1,003,000 —    
1979 6,301,000 +528.2%
1983 13,890,000 +120.4%
1996 15,297,000 +10.1%
1997[76]* 28,753,000 +88.0%
2000[76] 28,488,200 −0.9%
2005[76] 27,980,000 −1.8%
2008[76] 28,390,000 +1.5%
2012[76] 28,846,170 +1.6%
2013[76] 29,700,000 +3.0%
2014[77] 29,914,000 +0.7%
2015[78] 30,170,000 +0.9%
*Population size in 1997 was affected by expansion of administrative divisions.

According to a July 2010 article from the official Xinhua news agency, the municipality has a population of 32.8 million, including 23.3 million farmers. Among them, 8.4 million farmers have become migrant workers, including 3.9 million working and living in urban areas of Chongqing.[79] as of 2010, the metropolitan area encompassing the central urban area was estimated by the OECD to have, a population of 17 million.[80][81]

This would mean that the locally registered farmers who work in other jurisdictions number 4.5 million, reducing the local, year-round population of Chongqing in 2010 to 28.3 million, plus those who are registered in other jurisdictions but live and work in Chongqing. According to China's 2005 statistical yearbook, of a total population of 30.55 million, those with residence registered in other jurisdictions but residing in the Chongqing enumeration area numbered 1.4 million, including 46,000 who resided in Chongqing "for less than half-year". An additional 83,000 had registered in Chongqing, but not yet settled there.[82]

The 2005 statistical yearbook also lists 15.22 million (49.82%) males and 15.33 million (50.18%) females.[82]

In terms of age distribution in 2004, of the 30.55 million total population, 6.4 million (20.88%) were age 0–14, 20.7 million (67.69%) were 15–64, and 3.5 million (11.46%) were 65 and over.[83]

Of a total 10,470,000 households (2004), 1,360,000 consisted of one person, 2,940,000 two-person, 3,190,000 three-person, 1,790,000 four-person, 783,000 five-person, 270,000 six-person, 89,000 seven-person, 28,000 eight-person, 6,000 nine-person, and 10,000 households of 10 or more persons per household.[84]

Religion

Religion in Chongqing[85][note 2]

  Christianity (1.05%)
  Other or no religion [note 3] (72.32%)

The predominant religions in Chongqing are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 26.63% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors, while 1.05% of the population identifies as Christian.[85]

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 72.32% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects

In 2010, there were 9,056 Muslims in Chongqing[86]

Buddhist temple in Jiulongpo

Economy

Chongqing products treemap, 2020

Chongqing is facing rapid urbanization. For instance, statistics[87] suggest that new construction added approximately 137,000 m2 (1,470,000 sq ft) daily of usable floor space to satisfy demands for residential, commercial and factory space. In addition, more than 1,300 people moved into the city daily, adding almost 100 million yuan (US$15 million) to the local economy. Thus, Chongqing was separated from Sichuan province and made into a municipality in its own right on 14 March 1997[88] in order to accelerate its development and subsequently China's relatively poorer western areas (see China Western Development strategy).[89] An important industrial area in western China,[90]

Traditionally, due to its geographic inaccessibility, Chongqing and Sichuan have both been important military bases in weapons research and development.[91] Even though Chongqing's industries are diversified, unlike eastern China, its export sector is small due to its relatively disadvantageous inland location. Instead, factories producing local-oriented consumer goods such as processed food, cars, chemicals, textiles, machinery, sports equipment and electronics are common.

Chongqing is China's third largest motor vehicle production center and the largest for motorcycles. In 2007, it had an annual output capacity of 1 million cars and 8.6 million motorcycles.[92] Leading makers of cars and motorbikes includes China's fourth biggest automaker; Changan Automotive Corp and Lifan Hongda Enterprise, as well as Ford Motor Company, with the US car giant having 3 plants in Chongqing. The municipality is also one of China's nine largest iron and steel producers in China as well as one of its three major aluminum producers. Important manufacturers include Chongqing Iron and Steel Company (重庆钢铁股份有限公司) and Southwest Aluminum (西南鋁業), which is Asia's largest aluminum plant.[93] Agriculture remains significant. Rice and fruits, especially oranges, are the area's main produce. Natural resources are also abundant with large deposits of coal, natural gas, and more than 40 kinds of minerals such as strontium and manganese. Coal reserves total approximately 4,800,000,000 metric tons (4.7×109 long tons; 5.3×109 short tons). Chuandong Natural Gas Field is China's largest inland gas field with deposits of around 270 billion m3 – more than 1/5 of China's total. Has China's largest reserve of strontium (China has the world's 2nd biggest strontium deposit). Manganese is mined in the Xiushan area. Although the mining sector has been denounced as heavily polluting and unsafe.[94] Chongqing is also planned to be the site of a 10 million ton capacity refinery operated by CNPC (parent company of PetroChina) to process imported crude oil from the Sino-Burma pipelines. The pipeline itself, though not yet finished, will eventually run from Sittwe (in Myanmar's western coast) through Kunming in Yunnan before reaching Chongqing[95] and it will provide China with fuels sourced from Myanmar, the Middle East and Africa. Recently, there has been a drive to move up the value chain by shifting towards high technology and knowledge intensive industries resulting in new development zones such as the Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ).[96] Chongqing's local government is hoping through the promotion of favorable economic policies for the electronics and information technology sectors, that it can create a 400 billion RMB high technology manufacturing hub which will surpass its car industry and account for 25% of its exports.[97]

The city has also invested heavily in infrastructure to attract investment.[92][98] The network of roads and railways connecting Chongqing to the rest of China has been expanded and upgraded reducing logistical costs. Furthermore, the nearby Three Gorges Dam which is the world's largest, supplies Chongqing with power and allows oceangoing ships to reach Chongqing's Yangtze River port.[99] These infrastructure improvements have led to the arrivals of numerous foreign direct investors (FDI) in industries ranging from car to finance and retailing; such as Ford,[100] Mazda,[101] HSBC,[102] Standard Chartered Bank,[103] Citibank,[104] Deutsche Bank,[105] ANZ Bank,[106] Scotiabank,[107] Wal-Mart,[108] Metro AG[109] and Carrefour,[110] among other multinational corporations.

Chongqing's nominal GDP in 2011 reached 1001.1 billion yuan (US$158.9 billion) while registering an annual growth of 16.4%. However, its overall economic performance is still lagging behind eastern coastal cities such as Shanghai. For instance, its per capita GDP was 22,909 yuan (US$3,301) which is below the national average. Nevertheless, there is a massive government push to transform Chongqing into the region's economic, trade, and financial center and use the municipality as a platform to open up the country's western interior to further development.[111]

Chongqing has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the November 2010 Access China White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS (Chongqing, Hefei, Anshan, Maanshan, Pingdingshan and Shenyang), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China.[112]

Economic and technological development zones

The city includes a number of economic and technological development zones:

  • Chongqing Chemical Industrial Park[113]
  • Chongqing Economic & Technological Development Zone[114]
  • Chongqing Hi-Tech Industry Development Zone[115]
  • Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ)[116]
  • Chongqing Export Processing Zone[117]
  • Jianqiao Industrial Park (located in Dadukou District)[118]
  • Liangjiang New Area[119]
  • Liangjiang Cloud Computing Center (the largest of its kind in China)[120]

Chongqing itself is part of the West Triangle Economic Zone, along with Chengdu and Xi'an.

Education

Colleges and universities

Notable high schools

  • Fuling Experimental High School (涪陵实验中学)
  • Chongqing No.1 Secondary School (重庆一中)
  • Chongqing Nankai Secondary School (重庆南开中学)
  • Chongqing No.8 Secondary School (重庆八中)
  • Bashu Secondary School (巴蜀中学)
  • Chongqing Railway High School (重庆铁路中学)
  • Chongqing Yucai Secondary School (育才中学)
  • Chongqing Foreign Language School (The High School Affiliated to Sichuan International Studies University 重庆一外)
  • Verakin High School of Chongqing (The 2nd Chongqing Foreign Language School, 重庆二外)
  • Chongqing Qiujing High School (求精中学)
  • High School Affiliated to Southwest University (西南大学附中)
  • Chongqing NO.18 Secondary School (重庆十八中)

International schools

Transport

Since its elevation to national-level municipality in 1997, the city has dramatically expanded its transportation infrastructure. With the construction of railways and expressways to the east and southeast, Chongqing is a major transportation hub in southwestern China.

As of October 2014, the municipality had 31 bridges across the Yangtze River including over a dozen in the city's urban core.[123] Aside from the city's first two Yangtze River bridges, which were built, respectively, in 1960 and 1977, all of the other bridges were completed since 1995.

Public transit

A train of Chongqing Rail Transit Line 2 coming through a residential building at Liziba station.

Public transport in Chongqing consists of metro, intercity railway, a ubiquitous bus system and the world's largest monorail network.

According to the Chongqing Municipal Government's ambitious plan in May 2007, Chongqing is investing 150 billion RMB over 13 years to finish a system that combines underground metro lines with heavy monorail.

As of 2017, four metro lines, the 14 km (8.7 mi) long CRT Line 1, a conventional subway, and the 19 km (12 mi) long heavy monorail CRT Line 2 (through Phase II), Line 3, a heavy monorail connects the airport and the southern part of downtown.[124] Line 6, runs between Beibei, a commuter city in the city's far north to downtown.[125] Line 5 opened in late 2017.

By 2020 CRT will consist of 6 straight lines and 1 circular line resulting in 363.5 km (225.9 mi) of road and railway to the existing transportation infrastructure and 93 new train stations will be added to the 111 stations that are already in place.[126]

By 2050, Chongqing will have as many as 18 lines that are planned to be in operation.[127]

Aerial tramway

An aerial tramway across the Yangtse river in Chongqing CBD Photo by Chen Hualin

Chongqing is the only Chinese city that keeps public aerial tramways. Historically there were three aerial tramways in Chongqing: the Yangtze River Tramway, the Jialing River Tramway and the South Mountain Tramway. Currently, only Yangtze River Tramway is still operating and it is Class 4A Tourist Attractions in China. The 1,160-meter (3,810 ft)-long tramway connects the southern and northern banks of Yangtze River; its daily passenger volume is about 10,000.

River port

Hydrofoil on the Yangtze in the outer reaches of the municipality

Chongqing is one of the most important inland ports in China. There are numerous luxury cruise ships that terminate at Chongqing, cruising downstream along the Yangtze River to Yichang, Wuhan, Nanjing or even Shanghai.[citation needed] In the recent past, this provided virtually the only transportation option along the river. However, improved rail, expressways and air travel have seen this ferry traffic reduced or cancelled altogether. Most of the river ferry traffic consists of leisure cruises for tourists rather than local needs. Improved access by larger cargo vessels has been made due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. This allows bulk transport of goods along the Yangtze River. Coal, raw minerals and containerized goods provide the majority of traffic plying this section of the river. Several port handling facilities exist throughout the city, including many impromptu river bank sites.[128]

Railways

Major train stations in Chongqing:

  • Chongqing railway station in Yuzhong, accessible via Metro Lines 1 & 3 (Lianglukou Metro station), is the city's oldest railway station and located near the city center. The station handles mostly long-distance trains. There are plans for a major renovation and overhaul of this station, thus many services have been transferred to Chongqing North Railway Station.
  • Chongqing North railway station is a station handling many long-distance services and high-speed rail services to Chengdu, Beijing and other cities. It was completed in 2006 and is connected to Metro Line.
  • Chongqing West railway station is in Shapingba, a station handling many long-distance services and high-speed rail services to many cities. It is completed in 2018.
  • Shapingba railway station is in Shapingba, near Shapingba CBD, accessible via Metro Line 1. It handles many local and regional train services. It is completed in 2018.

Chongqing is a major freight destination for rail with continued development with improved handling facilities. Due to subsidies and incentives, the relocation and construction of many factories in Chongqing has seen a huge increase in rail traffic.

Chongqing is a major rail hub regionally.

Highways

Traditionally, the road network in Chongqing has been narrow, winding and limited to smaller vehicles because of the natural terrain, large rivers and the huge population demands on the area, especially in the Yuzhong District. In other places, such as Jiangbei, large areas of homes and buildings have recently been cleared to improve the road network and create better urban planning; thus, several ring roads have also been constructed. This has seen many tunnels and large bridges needing to be built across the city. The construction of many expressways have connected Chongqing to its neighbors. The natural mountainous terrain that Chongqing is built on makes many road projects difficult to construct, including for example some of the world's highest road bridges.[129]

Unlike many other Chinese cities, it is rare for motorbikes, electric scooters or bicycles to be seen on Chongqing's Roads. This is due to the extremely hilly and mountainous nature of Chongqing's roads and streets. However, despite this, Chongqing is a manufacturing center for these types of vehicles.[130]

  • Chongqing-Chengdu Expressway
  • Chongqing-Chengdu 2nd Expressway (under construction)
  • Chongqing-Wanzhou-Yichang Highway (Wanzhou-Yichang section under construction)
  • Chongqing-Guiyang Highway
  • Chongqing-Changsha Expressway (Xiushan-Changsha section under construction)
  • Chongqing-Dazhou-Xi'a Highway (Dazhou-Xi'an section under construction)
  • Chongqing-Suining Expressway
  • Chongqing-Nanchong Expressway
  • China National Highway 210
  • China National Highway 212

Bridges

View of Chaotianmen Bridge across the Yangtze River in Chongqing

With so many bridges crossing the Yangtze and Jialing rivers in the urban area, Chongqing is sometimes known as the 'Bridge Capital of China'. The first important bridge in urban Chongqing was the Niujiaotuo Jialing River Bridge, built in 1958. The first bridge over the Yangtze river was the Shibanpo Yangtze River Bridge (or Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge) built in 1977.

As of 2014, within the area of the 9 districts, there were 20 bridges on the Yangtze river and 28 bridges on the Jialing river. The bridges in Chongqing exhibit a variety of shapes and structures, making Chongqing a showcase for bridge design.

Airports

Departure Level of Terminal 3, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport

The major airport of Chongqing is Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport (IATA: CKG, ICAO: ZUCK). It is located in Yubei District. The airport offers a growing network of direct flights to China, South East Asia, the Middle East, North America, and Europe. It is located 21 km (13 mi) north of the city center of Chongqing and serves as an important aviation hub for south-western China.[131] Jiangbei airport is a hub for China Southern Airlines, Chongqing Airlines, Sichuan Airlines, China Express Airlines, Shandong Airlines and Hainan Airlines's new China West Air. Chongqing also is a focus city of Air China, therefore it is very well connected with Star Alliance and Skyteam's international network. The airport currently has three parallel runways in operation. It serves domestic routes to most other Chinese cities, as well as international routes to Auckland, New York City, London, Los Angeles, Moscow, Doha, Dubai, Seoul, Bangkok, Phuket, Osaka, Singapore, Chiang Mai, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Malé, Bali, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, Batam, Rome and Helsinki. As of 2021, Jiangbei Airport was the 4th busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic in mainland China.[132]

Currently, Jiangbei airport has three terminals. Chongqing Airport has metro access (CRT Line 3 and Line 10) to its central city, and two runways in normal use.[133]

There are four other airports in Chongqing Municipality: Qianjiang Wulingshan Airport, Wanzhou Wuqiao Airport, Wulong Xiannüshan Airport, and Wushan Shennüfeng Airport. They are all class 4C airports and serve passenger flights to domestic destinations including Beijing, Shanghai and Kunming.

Culture

Language

Zhongshan Ancient Town, Jiangjin, Chongqing

The language native to Chongqing is Southwestern Mandarin. More precisely, the great majority of the municipality, save for Xiushan, speak Sichuanese, including the primary Chengdu-Chongqing dialect and Minjiang dialect spoken in Jiangjin and Qijiang.[134] There are also a few speakers of Xiang and Hakka in the municipality, due to the great immigration wave to the Sichuan region (湖广填四川) during the Ming and Qing dynasties. In addition, in parts of southeastern Chongqing, the Miao and Tujia languages are also used by some Miao and Tujia people.[135]

Tourism

Martyrs' Cemetery

As the provisional Capital of China for almost ten years (1937 to 1945), the city was also known as one of the three headquarters of the Allies during World War II, as well as being a strategic center of many other wars throughout China's history. Chongqing has many historic war-time buildings or sites, some of which have since been destroyed. These sites include the People's Liberation Monument, located in the center of Chongqing city. It used to be the highest building in the area, but is now surrounded and dwarfed by numerous shopping centers. Originally named the Monument for the Victory over Axis Armies, it is the only building in China for that purpose.[136] Today, the monument serves as a symbol for the city. The General Joseph W. Stilwell Museum, dedicated to General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell, a World War II general.[137] the air force cemetery in the Nanshan area, in memory of those air force personnel killed during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), and the Red Rock Village Museum, a diplomatic site for the Communist Party in Chongqing led by Zhou Enlai during World War II, and Guiyuan, Cassia Garden, where Mao Zedong signed the "Double 10 (10 October) Peace Agreement" with the Kuomintang in 1945.[138]

The Hongya Cave (Hongya-dong) traditional Bayu-style stilted houses at Jiefangbei CBD
The steep path up to the front gate of Fishing Town
Ciqikou ancient road in Shapingba District

Cuisine

Chongqing food is part of Sichuan cuisine. Chongqing is known for its spicy food. Its food is normally considered numbing because of the use of Sichuan pepper, also known as Sichuan peppercorn, containing hydroxy alpha sanshool. Chongqing's city center has many restaurants and food stalls where meals often cost less than RMB10. Local specialties here include dumplings and pickled vegetables and, different from many other Chinese cuisines, Chongqing dishes are suitable for the solo diner as they are often served in small individual sized portions.[152] Among the delicacies and local specialties are these dishes:

Typical Chongqing hot pot served with minced shrimp, tripes, pork aorta, goose intestine, and kidney slices.
Chongqing Xiao mian with peas and spicy bean paste
  • Chongqing hot pot– Chongqing's local culinary specialty which was originally from Northern China. Tables in hot pot restaurants usually have a central pot, where food ordered by the customers is boiled in a spicy broth, items such as beef, pork, tripe, kidney slices, pork aorta and goose intestine are often consumed.[153]
  • Chongqing Xiao Mian – a common lamian noodle dish tossed with chili oil and rich mixtures of spices and ingredients
  • Jiangtuan fish – since Chongqing is located along Jialing River, visitors have a good opportunity to sample varieties of aquatic products. Among them, is a fish local to the region, Jiangtuan fish: Hypophthalmichthys nobilis although more commonly known as bighead carp.[154] The fish is often served steamed or baked.[155]
Laziji is famous for its crispy texture
  • Suan La Fen (Sour and Spicy Sweet-Potato Noodles) – Thick, transparent noodles of rubbery texture in a spicy vinegar soup.[156]
  • Lazi Ji (Spicy Chicken) – A stir-fried dish consists of marinated then deep-fried pieces of chicken, dried Sichuan chili peppers, Sichuan peppers, garlic, and ginger,[157] originated near Geleshan in Chongqing.[158]
  • Quanshui Ji (Spring Water Chicken) – Quanshui Ji is cooked with the natural spring water in the Southern Mountain of Chongqing.
  • Pork leg cooked with rock sugar – A common household dish of Chongqing, the tender, reddish finished dish, has been described as having strong and sweet aftertaste.[159]
  • Qianzhang (skimmed soy bean cream) – Qianzhang is the cream skimmed from soybean milk. In order to create this, several steps must be followed very carefully. First, soybeans are soaked in water, ground, strained, boiled, restrained several times and spread over gauze until delicate, snow-white cream is formed. The paste can also be hardened, cut into slivers and seasoned with sesame oil, garlic and chili oil. Another variation is to bake the cream and fry it with bacon, which is described as soft and sweet.[160]

Media

The Chongqing People's Broadcast Station is Chongqing's largest radio station.[161] The only municipal-level TV network is Chongqing TV, claimed to be the 4th largest television station in China.[162] Chongqing TV broadcasts many local-oriented channels, and can be viewed on many TV sets throughout China.

Sports and recreation

Basketball

Chongqing Soaring Dragons became the 20th team playing in Chinese Basketball Association in 2013. They play at Datianwan Arena, in the same sporting complex as Datianwan Stadium.[163] The team moved to Beijing in 2015 and is currently known as Beijing Royal Fighters.

Soccer

Professional soccer teams in Chongqing include:

Chongqing Lifan is a professional Chinese soccer club that currently plays in the Chinese Super League. They are owned by the Chongqing-based Lifan Group, which manufactures motorcycles, cars and spare parts.[164] Originally called Qianwei (Vanguard) Wuhan, the club formed in 1995 to take part in the recently developed, fully professional Chinese Soccer League. They would quickly rise to top tier of the system and experience their greatest achievement in winning the 2000 Chinese FA Cup,[165] and coming in fourth within the league. However, since then they have struggled to replicate the same success, and have twice been relegated from the top tier.[166]

Chongqing FC was a soccer club located in the city that competed in China League One, the country's second-tier soccer division, before being relegated to the China League Two, and dissolved due to a resultant lack of funds.[167]

Sport venues

Sport venues in Chongqing include:

  • The Chongqing Olympic Sports Center is a multipurpose stadium. It is currently used mostly for soccer matches, as it has a grass surface, and can hold 58,680. It was built in 2002 and was one of main venues for the 2004 AFC Asian Cup.[168]
  • Yanghe Stadium is a multiuse stadium that is currently used mostly for soccer matches. The stadium holds 32,000 people, and is the home of Chongqing Lifan in the Chinese Super League. The stadium was purchased by the Lifan Group in 2001 for RMB80 million and immediately replaced Datianwan Stadium as the home of Chongqing Lifan.[169]
  • Datianwan Stadium is a multipurpose stadium that is currently used mostly for soccer matches. The stadium has a capacity 32,000 people, and up until 2001 was the home of Chongqing Lifan.[170]

Cloud Valley

At the end of 2020, a collaboration between a Danish architecture firm and a Chinese tech company Terminus was announced, taking the form of an AI-controlled campus. The project is named Cloud Valley and aims to use sensors and WiFi-controlled devices to collect data on the city's residents and atmosphere, including weather and eating and sleeping habits. The AI will adapt devices to work in a way that fits the gathered information and improves residents' lives.[171]

Notable people

International relations

Consulates

Consulate Date Consular District
Canada Consulate-General, Chongqing[172] 05.1998 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
United Kingdom Consulate-General, Chongqing[172] 03.2000 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
Cambodia Consulate-General, Chongqing[172] 12.2004 Chongqing, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi
Japan Consulate-General, Chongqing[172] 01.2005 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi
Philippines Consulate-General, Chongqing[172] 12.2008 Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan
Hungary Consulate-General, Chongqing[172] 02.2010 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu
Ethiopia Consulate-General, Chongqing[172] 11.2011 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
Italy Consulate-General, Chongqing[173] 12.2013 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
Netherlands Consulate-General, Chongqing[173] 01.2014 Chongqing, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Guizhou
Uruguay Consulate-General, Chongqing[174] 12.2019 Chongqing, Sichuan, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu

Twin towns – sister cities

Chongqing has sister city relationships with many cities of the world including:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Total urban population in the municipality.
  2. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[85] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② folk traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people practicing ancestral worship are often classified into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, etc.) was not reported by Wang.
  3. ^ This may include:

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External links

Preceded by Wartime Capital of China
Republic of China
21 November 1937 – 5 May 1946
Succeeded by
Preceded by Wartime Capital of China
Republic of China
14 October 1949 – 30 November 1949
Succeeded by