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Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur ( pronunciação malaia:  [ˈkualə, -a ˈlumpo(r), -ʊ(r)] ), oficialmente o Território Federal de Kuala Lumpur ( malaio : Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur ) e coloquialmente referido como KL , é um território federal e a capital da Malásia . É a maior cidade da Malásia, cobrindo uma área de 243 km 2 (94 MI quadrado) com uma população estimada de 1,73 milhões a partir de 2016 . [8] A Grande Kuala Lumpur , também conhecida como Vale Klang , é uma aglomeração urbanade 7,564 milhões de pessoas a partir de 2018 . [4] Está entre as regiões metropolitanas que mais crescem no Sudeste Asiático , tanto em população quanto em desenvolvimento econômico.

Kuala Lumpur
Território Federal de Kuala Lumpur
Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur
Outras transcrições
 •  Jawi ولايه ڤرسکوتوان کوالا لومڤور
 •  Chinês 吉隆坡联邦直辖区
吉隆坡聯邦直轄區
 •  Tâmil கோலாலம்பூர் கூட்டரசு பிரதேசம்
De cima, da esquerda para a direita:
Skyline à noite com as Petronas Towers , a KL Tower e também a TRX Tower ao fundo; Interseção Bukit Bintang , Petaling Street , Sultan Abdul Samad Building na Praça Merdeka , pontos fotográficos da Mesquita Jamek, que fica entre a confluência do rio Gombak e Klang , Monumento Nacional , estação ferroviária de Kuala Lumpur e o Palácio Nacional
Coat of arms of Kuala Lumpur
Apelidos: 
KL, A Cidade Jardim das Luzes
Lema(s): 
Bersedia Menyumbang Bandaraya Cemerlang
English: Pronto para contribuir para uma cidade excelente
Hino: Maju dan Sejahtera
Português: Progresso e Próspero
Kuala Lumpur is located in Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is located in Southeast Asia
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is located in Asia
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Coordenadas: 03°08′52″N 101°41′43″E / 3.14778°N 101.69528°E / 3.14778; 101.69528 Coordenadas : 03°08′52″N 101°41′43″E  / 3.14778°N 101.69528°E / 3.14778; 101.69528
País Malásia
Áreas administrativas
Estabelecimento 1857 [1]
Estado da cidade 1 de fevereiro de 1972
Transferido para jurisdição federal 1 de fevereiro de 1974
Governo
 • Tipo Administração federal
com governo local
 • Corpo Prefeitura de Kuala Lumpur
 •  Prefeito Mahadi bin Che Ngah
Representação federal Parlamento da Malásia
 •  Assentos Dewan Rakyat 11 de 222 (5,0%)
 •  Assentos Dewan Negara 2 de 70 (2,9%)
Área
[2]
 • Território Federal 243 km 2 (94 sq mi)
 • Metrô
2.243,27 km 2 (866,13 milhas quadradas)
Elevação
[3]
94 m (308 pés)
Elevação mais alta 678,9 m (2.227 pés)
População
 (est. de 2019) [5]
 • Território Federal 1.782.500
 • Classificação
 • Densidade 7.802/km 2 (20.210/sq mi)
 •  Metrô
7.564.000 [4]
 • Densidade metropolitana 2.708/km 2 (7.010/sq mi)
 •  Demônio
KL-ite / Kuala Lumpurian
Índice de cidades
 •  IDH (2019) 0,867 ( muito alto ) ( ) [6]
 •  PIB (2019) RM 244.210 milhões ($ 59.831 milhões) ( ) [7]
 • Per capita (2019) RM 129.472 ($ 31.720) ( ) [7]
Fuso horário UTC+8 ( MST )
Código postal
50.000 a 60.000
Tempo solar médio UTC+06:46:46
Código(s) de área 03
Registro de Veículo V e W (exceto táxis)
HW (apenas para táxis)
ISO 3166-2 MY-14
Língua (s) oficial (is) Inglês malaio
Local na rede Internet www .visitkl .gov .my
www .dbkl .gov .my /en /

A cidade serve como o centro cultural, financeiro e econômico da Malásia. É também o lar do Parlamento da Malásia e do Istana Negara , a residência oficial do Yang di-Pertuan Agong (monarca da Malásia). Kuala Lumpur se desenvolveu por volta de 1857 como uma cidade servindo as minas de estanho da região e serviu como capital de Selangor de 1880 até 1978. Kuala Lumpur foi a capital fundadora da Federação da Malásia e sua sucessora Malásia, e a cidade permaneceu a sede dos ramos executivo e judiciário do governo federal da Malásia até que estes foram transferidos para Putrajaya no início de 1999. [9]No entanto, algumas seções dos órgãos políticos ainda permanecem em Kuala Lumpur.

Kuala Lumpur é um dos três territórios federais da Malásia , [10] encravado no estado de Selangor , na costa oeste central da Malásia peninsular . [11] Desde a década de 1990, a cidade foi palco de muitos eventos esportivos, políticos e culturais internacionais, incluindo os Jogos da Commonwealth de 1998 e os Jogos do Sudeste Asiático de 2017 . Kuala Lumpur passou por um rápido desenvolvimento nas últimas décadas e abriga os edifícios gêmeos mais altos do mundo, as Petronas Towers , que desde então se tornaram um símbolo icônico do desenvolvimento da Malásia.

Possui um sistema rodoviário abrangente suportado por uma ampla gama de redes de transporte público, como transporte rápido em massa (MRT), transporte rápido leve (LRT), monotrilho , trem suburbano , ônibus públicos , ônibus hop on & hop off (gratuito ) e ligações ferroviárias aeroportuárias . Kuala Lumpur é uma das principais cidades do mundo para turismo e compras, a 6ª cidade mais visitada do mundo em 2019. [12] A cidade abriga três dos dez maiores shopping centers do mundo. [13]

Kuala Lumpur ocupa a 70ª posição no mundo e a segunda no Sudeste Asiático no Ranking Global de Habitabilidade da Economist Intelligence Unit [14] e a nona na ASPAC e a segunda no Sudeste Asiático no Leading Technology Innovation Hub 2021 da KPMG . [15] Kuala Lumpur foi nomeada Capital Mundial do Livro 2020 pela UNESCO . [16] [17]

Etimologia

Mesquita Jamek na confluência dos rios Gombak (esquerda) e Klang (direita). O primeiro assentamento de Kuala Lumpur se desenvolveu no lado leste da margem do rio (à direita nesta foto).

Kuala Lumpur significa "confluência lamacenta" em malaio ; Kuala é o ponto onde dois rios se unem ou um estuário , e lumpur significa "lama". [18] [19] Uma sugestão é que foi nomeado após Sungai Lumpur ("rio lamacento"); na década de 1820, um lugar chamado Sungei Lumpoor era considerado o mais importante assentamento produtor de estanho no rio Klang . [20] No entanto, esta derivação não leva em conta isso: Kuala Lumpur fica na confluência do rio Gombak e do rio Klang e, portanto, deve ser nomeado Kuala Gombak, uma vez que o kualaé tipicamente nomeado após o rio que une um rio maior ou o mar. [21] Alguns argumentaram que Sungai Lumpur de fato se estendia até a confluência e, portanto, o ponto onde se juntava ao rio Klang seria Kuala Lumpur, [22] embora este Sungai Lumpur seja dito ser outro rio que se junta ao rio Klang 1,5 km (1 milha) a montante da confluência de Gombak, ou talvez localizado ao norte da área de Batu Caves . [21]

Também foi proposto que Kuala Lumpur foi originalmente chamado Pengkalan Lumpur ("local de pouso lamacento") da mesma forma que Klang já foi chamado de Pengkalan Batu ("local de pouso de pedra"), mas foi corrompido em Kuala Lumpur. [22] Outra teoria diz que foi inicialmente uma palavra cantonesa , lam-pa , que significa 'selva inundada' ou 'selva em decomposição'. Não há evidências contemporâneas firmes para essas sugestões além de anedotas. [23] O nome também pode ser uma forma corrompida de um nome esquecido anteriormente. [21]

História

Primeiros anos

Afiliações históricas

 Sultanato de Selangor 1857–1974
 Estados Federados da Malásia 1895–1942; 1945-1946
Império do Japão 1942-1945
 União Malaia 1946-1948
 Federação da Malásia 1948-1963
 Malásia 1963-presente

Ninguém sabe especificamente quem fundou ou nomeou Kuala Lumpur. Mineiros chineses estavam envolvidos na mineração de estanho no rio Selangor na década de 1840 a cerca de 16 quilômetros (10 milhas) ao norte da atual Kuala Lumpur, [24] e Mandailing Sumatrans liderado por Raja Asal  [ ms ] e Sutan Puasa também estavam envolvidos em estanho mineração e comércio na região de Ulu Klang antes de 1860, e Sumatrans pode ter se estabelecido no curso superior do rio Klang no primeiro quartel do século 19, ou possivelmente antes. [22] [25] [26] [27]Kuala Lumpur era originalmente uma pequena aldeia de apenas algumas casas e lojas na confluência do Sungai Gombak e Sungai Klang ( rio Klang ). Kuala Lumpur tornou-se uma cidade por volta de 1857, [28] quando o chefe malaio de Klang , Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, auxiliado por seu irmão Raja Juma'at de Lukut , levantou fundos de empresários chineses de Malaca para contratar mineiros chineses de Lukut para abrir novas minas de estanho lá. [29] [30] Os mineiros desembarcaram em Kuala Lumpur e continuaram a pé até Ampang , onde abriram a primeira mina. [31]Kuala Lumpur era o ponto mais distante do rio Klang para o qual os suprimentos podiam ser convenientemente trazidos de barco e, portanto, tornou-se um ponto de coleta e dispersão que servia as minas de estanho. [32] [28]

Kapitan Yap Ah Loy , o terceiro Kapitan chinês de Kuala Lumpur
Frank Swettenham ,
creditado com o rápido crescimento e desenvolvimento de Kuala Lumpur

Apesar de um alto número de mortos pelas condições de malária da selva, as minas de Ampang tiveram sucesso e exportaram o primeiro estanho em 1859. [32] Naquela época, Sutan Puasa já estava negociando perto de Ampang. Dois comerciantes de Lukut, Hiu Siew e Yap Ah Sze, chegaram a Kuala Lumpur e abriram lojas para vender provisões aos mineiros em troca de estanho. [33] [34] A cidade, estimulada pela mineração de estanho, começou a se desenvolver em torno da Praça do Mercado Velho ( Medan Pasar ), com estradas que se estendem em direção a Ampang, bem como Pudu e Batu (os destinos se tornaram os nomes dessas estradas: Estrada Ampang , Estrada Pudu e Estrada Batu), onde os mineiros também começaram a se instalar, e Petaling e Damansara . [35] Os mineiros formaram gangues [36] e as gangues lutaram frequentemente neste período, particularmente facções de Kuala Lumpur e Kanching, principalmente pelo controle das melhores minas de estanho. [37] Líderes da comunidade chinesa receberam o título de Kapitan Cina (chefe chinês) pelo chefe malaio, e Hiu Siew, o primeiro comerciante chinês, tornou-se o primeiro Kapitan de Kuala Lumpur. [38] O terceiro Kapitan chinês de Kuala Lumpur, Yap Ah Loy , foi nomeado em 1868. [27]

Importantes figuras malaias do início de Kuala Lumpur também incluíam Haji Mohamed Tahir, que se tornou o Dato Dagang ("chefe dos comerciantes"). [25] Os Minangkabaus de Sumatra tornaram-se outro grupo importante que negociou e estabeleceu plantações de tabaco na área. [39] Minangkabaus notável incluiu seu chefe, Dato' Sati, Utsman Abdullah, [40] e Haji Mohamed Taib , que esteve envolvido no desenvolvimento inicial de Kampung Baru . [41] [42] Os Minangkabaus também foram figuras sócio-religiosas significativas, por exemplo, Utsman bin Abdullah foi o primeiro kadi de Kuala Lumpur, assim como Muhammad Nur bin Ismail.[43]

Começo da moderna Kuala Lumpur

Parte de uma vista panorâmica de Kuala Lumpur c.  1884 . À esquerda está o Padang . Os edifícios foram construídos de madeira e atap antes que os regulamentos promulgados por Swettenham em 1884 exigissem que os edifícios usassem tijolos e telhas. A aparência de Kuala Lumpur transformou-se rapidamente nos anos seguintes devido aos regulamentos de construção.

No início Kuala Lumpur era uma pequena cidade que sofria de muitos problemas sociais e políticos – os edifícios eram feitos de madeira e “ atap ” (palmeira de palha ). Os edifícios eram propensos a pegar fogo e, devido à falta de saneamento adequado, a cidade foi assolada por doenças. Também sofria de uma constante ameaça de inundações devido à sua localização. A cidade se envolveu na Guerra Civil de Selangor, em parte pelo controle da receita das minas de estanho. Yap Ah Loy aliou-se a Tengku Kudin  [ ms ], e a gangue rival chinesa se aliou a Raja Mahdi. Raja Asal e Sutan Puasa também mudaram de lado para Raja Mahdi, e Kuala Lumpur foi capturada em 1872 e incendiada. Yap escapou para Klang, onde reuniu outra força de combate e recapturou Kuala Lumpur em março de 1873, derrotando as forças de Raja Mahdi com a ajuda de combatentes de Pahang . [37] A guerra e outros contratempos, como a queda dos preços do estanho, levaram a uma queda. Um grande surto de cólera fez com que muitos fugissem. A queda durou até o final de 1879, quando o aumento dos preços do estanho permitiu que a cidade se recuperasse. [28]No final de 1881, a cidade foi severamente inundada, após um incêndio que destruiu toda a cidade em janeiro. A cidade foi reconstruída algumas vezes e prosperou, em grande parte devido à tenacidade e persistência de Yap Ah Loy. [44] [45] Yap, juntamente com Frank Swettenham , que foi nomeado Residente em 1882, foram as duas figuras mais importantes do início de Kuala Lumpur com Swettenham creditado com seu rápido crescimento e desenvolvimento e sua transformação em um grande centro urbano. [46]

Os Escritórios Governamentais dos Estados Federados da Malásia (agora o Edifício Sultan Abdul Samad ) de frente para o Padang , c.  1900

Os primeiros chineses e malaios se estabeleceram ao longo da margem leste do rio Klang. Os chineses se estabeleceram principalmente em torno do centro comercial da Praça do Mercado. Os malaios, e mais tarde os chettiars indianos e os muçulmanos, residiam na área da Java Street, agora Jalan Tun Perak . Em 1880, a administração colonial mudou a capital do estado de Selangor de Klang para Kuala Lumpur, estrategicamente mais vantajosa, e o residente britânico William Bloomfield Douglas decidiu localizar os prédios do governo e os alojamentos a oeste do rio. Escritórios do governo e um novo quartel-general da polícia foram construídos em Bukit Aman, e o Padang foi inicialmente criado para treinamento da polícia. [47] O Padang, agora conhecido como Praça Merdeka, would later become the centre of the British administrative offices when the colonial government offices moved to the Sultan Abdul Samad Building in 1897.[45]

Frank Swettenham , ao se tornar o residente britânico, começou a melhorar a cidade limpando as ruas. Ele também estipulou em 1884 que os edifícios deveriam ser construídos de tijolos e telhas para que fossem menos inflamáveis, e que a cidade fosse reconstruída com ruas mais largas para reduzir o risco de incêndio. [46] [48] Kapitan Yap Ah Loy comprou um grande pedaço de propriedade para montar uma fábrica de tijolos para a reconstrução de Kuala Lumpur, os Brickfields de mesmo nome . [49] Os prédios demolidos foram substituídos por prédios de tijolos e telhas, e muitos dos novos prédios de tijolos tinham " caminhos de cinco pés " e trabalhos de carpintaria chinesa. Isso resultou em uma distinta ecléticaarquitetura de casa de loja típica da região. Kapitan Yap Ah Loy ampliou o acesso rodoviário, ligando as minas de estanho com a cidade com as principais vias arteriais da atual Ampang Road , Pudu Road e Petaling Street . [50] Como Kapitan chinês, ele detinha amplos poderes em pé de igualdade com os líderes comunitários malaios . As reformas da lei foram implementadas e novas medidas legais introduzidas na assembléia. Yap também presidiu um tribunal de pequenas causas . Com uma força policial de seis, ele foi capaz de defender o estado de direito, construindo uma prisão que poderia acomodar sessenta presos por vez. Yap Ah Loy também construiu a primeira escola de Kuala Lumpur e um importante moinho de tapioca na Petaling Street, no qual o sultão Abdul Samad de Selangor tinha interesse. [51]

A construção da ferrovia impulsionou o crescimento da cidade. A primeira sede das Ferrovias Federadas dos Estados Malaios (agora o Museu Nacional Têxtil ) perto dos escritórios do governo FMS à distância, c.  1910 .

Uma linha férrea entre Kuala Lumpur e Klang, iniciada por Swettenham e concluída em 1886, aumentou o acesso e resultou em rápido crescimento. A população cresceu de 4.500 em 1884 para 20.000 em 1890. [28] À medida que o desenvolvimento se intensificou na década de 1880, pressionando o saneamento, a eliminação de resíduos e outras medidas de saúde. Um Conselho Sanitário criado em 14 de maio de 1890 era responsável pelo saneamento, conservação das estradas, iluminação pública e outras funções. Isso acabaria se tornando o Conselho Municipal de Kuala Lumpur . [52] Em 1896, Kuala Lumpur foi escolhida como capital dos recém-formados Estados Federados Malaios . [53]

Século 20-presente

Uma galeria de lojas com um varredor de estrada trabalhando na rua de Kuala Lumpur, c.  1915-1925 .

Kuala Lumpur expandiu-se consideravelmente no século 20. Era 0,65 km 2 (0,25 MI quadrado) em 1895, mas foi estendido para abranger 20 km 2 (7,7 MI quadrado) em 1903. No momento em que se tornou um município em 1948 tinha expandido para 93 km 2 (36 MI quadrado) , e depois para 243 km 2 (94 MI quadrado) em 1974 como um Território Federal. [54]

O desenvolvimento de uma indústria de borracha em Selangor alimentado pela demanda por pneus de carro no início do século 20 levou a um boom, e a população de Kuala Lumpur aumentou de 30.000 em 1900 para 80.000 em 1920. [55] As atividades comerciais de Kuala Lumpur tinha sido administrado em grande parte por empresários chineses como Loke Yew , que era então o chinês mais rico e influente em Kuala Lumpur. O crescimento da indústria da borracha levou a um influxo de capital estrangeiro e plantadores, com novas empresas e indústrias se estabelecendo em Kuala Lumpur, e outras empresas anteriormente sediadas em outros lugares também encontraram presença aqui. [55]

Tropas japonesas avançando pela High Street (agora Jalan Tun HS Lee ) em Kuala Lumpur em dezembro de 1941 durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial.

During World War II, Kuala Lumpur was captured by the Imperial Japanese Army on 11 January 1942. Despite suffering little damage during the course of the battle, the wartime occupation of the city resulted in significant loss of lives; at least 5,000 Chinese were killed in Kuala Lumpur in just a few weeks of occupation by Japanese forces, and thousands of Indians were sent as forced labour to work on the Burma Railway where many died.[56] They occupied the city until 15 August 1945, when the commander in chief of the Japanese Seventh Area Army in Singapore and Malaysia, Seishirō Itagaki, surrendered to the British administration following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.[57] Kuala Lumpur grew during the war, and continued after the war during the Malayan Emergency (1948-1960), during which Malaya was preoccupied with a communist insurgency and New Villages were established on the outskirts of the city.[46]

The first municipal election in Kuala Lumpur was held on 16 February 1952. An ad hoc alliance between the Malay UMNO and Chinese MCA party candidates won a majority of the seats, and this led to the formation of the Alliance Party (later the Barisan Nasional).[58] On 31 August 1957, the Federation of Malaya gained its independence from British rule.[59] The British flag was lowered and the Malayan flag raised for the first time at the Padang at midnight on 30 August 1957,[60] and on the morning of 31 August, the ceremony for the Declaration of Independence was held at the Merdeka Stadium by the first Prime Minister of Malaya, Tunku Abdul Rahman. Kuala Lumpur remained the capital after the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963. The Malaysian Houses of Parliament were completed at the edge of the Lake Gardens in 1963.[61]

The Majestic Theatre on Pudu Road was an early pioneer in Kuala Lumpur's cinema scene. It was converted into an amusement park in the 1990s and demolished in 2009.

Kuala Lumpur had seen a number of civil disturbances over the years. A riot in 1897 was a relatively minor affair that began with the confiscation of faulty dacing (a scale used by traders), and in 1912, a more serious disturbance called the tauchang riot began during the Chinese New Year with the cutting of pigtails and ended with rioting and factional fighting lasting a number of days.[62] The worst rioting on record in Malaysia, however, occurred on 13 May 1969, when race riots broke out in Kuala Lumpur.[63] The so-called 13 May Incident included violent conflicts between members of the Malay and the Chinese communities, the result of Malaysian dissatisfaction with their socio-political status. The riots caused the deaths of 196 people, according to official figures,[63] and led to major changes in the country's economic policy to promote and prioritise Malay economic development over that of other ethnicities.

City, Federal Territory, Greater Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur achieved city status on 1 February 1972,[64][65] becoming the first settlement in Malaysia to be granted the status after independence. Later, on 1 February 1974, Kuala Lumpur became a federal territory.[66] The territory of Kuala Lumpur expanded to 96 square miles by absorbing the surrounding areas. Kuala Lumpur ceded from Selangor to be directly controlled by the central government, and it ceased to be capital of Selangor in 1978 after the city of Shah Alam was declared the new state capital.[67] On 14 May 1990, Kuala Lumpur celebrated the centennial of the local council. The new federal territory Kuala Lumpur flag and anthem were introduced. On 1 February 2001, Putrajaya was declared a Federal Territory, as well as the seat of the federal government.[68] The administrative and judicial functions of the government were shifted from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya. Kuala Lumpur however still retained its legislative function,[69] and remained the home of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Constitutional King).[70]

The Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC) in 2020.

From the 1990s onwards, major urban developments in the Klang Valley extended the Kuala Lumpur metropolitan area.[71][72] This area, known as Greater Kuala Lumpur, extends from the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur westward to Port Klang, east to the edge of the Titiwangsa Mountains as well as to the north and south. The area covers other administratively separate towns and cities such as Klang, Shah Alam, Putrajaya and others,[73][74] and is served by the Klang Valley Integrated Transit System. Notable projects undertaken within Kuala Lumpur itself include the development of a new Kuala Lumpur City Centre around Jalan Ampang and the Petronas Towers.[75]

Geography

A satellite view of Klang Valley or Greater Kuala Lumpur

The geography of Kuala Lumpur is characterised by the huge Klang Valley, bordered by the Titiwangsa Mountains in the east, several minor ranges in the north and the south, and the Strait of Malacca in the west. Kuala Lumpur is a Malay term that translates to "muddy confluence" and is located at the confluence of the Klang and Gombak rivers.[76]

The Red Arrows over the city in 2016

Located in the centre of Selangor state, Kuala Lumpur was a territory of Selangor State Government. In 1974, Kuala Lumpur was split off from Selangor to form the first Federal Territory governed directly by the Malaysian federal government. Its location in the most developed state on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia, which has a wider stretch of flat land than the east coast, has helped it develop faster than other cities in Malaysia.[77] The municipality covers an area of 243 km2 (94 sq mi),[2] with an average elevation of 81.95 m (268 ft 10 in).[78]

Climate and weather

Protegida pela cordilheira de Titiwangsa a leste e pela ilha de Sumatra na Indonésia, a oeste, Kuala Lumpur é abrigada de ventos fortes e possui clima de floresta tropical ( classificação climática de Köppen Af ), quente, úmido e ensolarado, com chuvas abundantes, especialmente durante o nordeste . estação das monções de outubro a março. As temperaturas tendem a permanecer constantes. As máximas oscilam entre 32 e 35 °C (90 e 95 °F) e às vezes chegam a 38 °C (100,4 °F), enquanto as mínimas ficam entre 23,4 e 24,6 °C (74,1 e 76,3 °F) e nunca caíram abaixo de 17,8 ° C (64,0°F). [79] [80] Kuala Lumpur typically receives at least 2,600 mm (100 in) of rain annually; June and July are relatively dry, but even then rainfall typically exceeds 131 millimetres (5.2 in) a month.

Floods are frequent in Kuala Lumpur after heavy downpours, especially in the city centre, because irrigation structure lags behind the intense development in the city.[81] Smoke from forest fires in nearby Sumatra sometimes casts a haze over the region, and is a major source of pollution, along with open burning, motor vehicle emissions, and construction.[82]

Climate data for Kuala Lumpur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38.0
(100.4)
36.2
(97.2)
36.7
(98.1)
37.2
(99.0)
38.5
(101.3)
36.6
(97.9)
36.3
(97.3)
38.0
(100.4)
35.8
(96.4)
37.0
(98.6)
36.0
(96.8)
35.5
(95.9)
38.5
(101.3)
Average high °C (°F) 32.0
(89.6)
32.8
(91.0)
33.1
(91.6)
33.1
(91.6)
33.0
(91.4)
32.8
(91.0)
32.8
(91.0)
32.3
(90.1)
32.1
(89.8)
32.0
(89.6)
31.7
(89.1)
31.5
(88.7)
32.4
(90.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.7
(81.9)
28.2
(82.8)
28.6
(83.5)
28.7
(83.7)
28.8
(83.8)
28.6
(83.5)
28.1
(82.6)
28.1
(82.6)
28.0
(82.4)
28.0
(82.4)
27.8
(82.0)
27.6
(81.7)
28.2
(82.8)
Average low °C (°F) 23.4
(74.1)
23.6
(74.5)
24.0
(75.2)
24.3
(75.7)
24.6
(76.3)
24.3
(75.7)
23.8
(74.8)
23.9
(75.0)
23.8
(74.8)
24.0
(75.2)
23.8
(74.8)
23.6
(74.5)
23.9
(75.0)
Record low °C (°F) 17.8
(64.0)
18.0
(64.4)
18.9
(66.0)
20.6
(69.1)
20.5
(68.9)
19.1
(66.4)
20.1
(68.2)
20.0
(68.0)
21.0
(69.8)
20.0
(68.0)
20.7
(69.3)
19.0
(66.2)
17.8
(64.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 193
(7.6)
198
(7.8)
257
(10.1)
290
(11.4)
197
(7.8)
131
(5.2)
148
(5.8)
162
(6.4)
214
(8.4)
265
(10.4)
321
(12.6)
252
(9.9)
2,628
(103.4)
Average rainy days 17 17 19 20 18 14 16 16 19 21 24 22 223
Average relative humidity (%) 80 80 80 82 81 80 79 79 81 82 84 83 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 185.0 192.4 207.9 198.8 206.8 194.4 200.2 189.0 163.8 169.1 152.3 162.6 2,222.3
Source 1: Pogodaiklimat.ru[80]
Source 2: NOAA (sunshine hours, 1961–1990)[83]
Climate data for Kuala Lumpur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily daylight hours 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.3 12.3 12.2 12.1 12.0 12.0 11.9 12.1
Average Ultraviolet index 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
Source: Weather Atlas[84]

Governance

Kuala Lumpur was administered by a corporation sole called the Federal Capital Commissioner from April 1, 1961, until it was awarded city status in 1972, after which executive power transferred to the Lord Mayor (Datuk Bandar).[85] Thirteen mayors have been appointed since then. The current mayor is Datuk Mahadi Che Ngah, who has been in office since October 1, 2020.[86]

Local government

The local administration is carried out by the Kuala Lumpur City Hall, an agency under the Federal Territories Ministry of Malaysia.[85] It is responsible for public health and sanitation, waste removal and management, town planning, environmental protection and building control, social and economic development, and general maintenance functions of urban infrastructure. Executive power lies with the mayor in the city hall, who is appointed for three years by the Federal Territories Minister. This system of appointing the mayor has been in place ever since the local government elections were suspended in 1970.[87]

Districts

Districts (divisions) of Kuala Lumpur


Kuala Lumpur's eleven parliamentary constituencies, with estimated population and percentage of the total, are congruent with administrative subdivisions under the authority of the Kuala Lumpur City Hall authority.[88] These 11 districts can be divided into 29 subdistricts.

  1. Bukit Bintang (103,820 - 5.8%)
  2. Titiwangsa (198,690 - 11.1%)
  3. Setiawangsa (179,000 - 10.0%)
  4. Wangsa Maju (227,330 - 12.7%)
  5. Batu (91,290 - 5.1%)
  6. Kepong (10,740 - 0.6%)
  7. Segambut (125,300 - 7%)
  8. Lembah Pantai (189,740 - 10.6%)
  9. Seputeh (230,910 - 12.9%)
  10. Bandar Tun Razak (273,870 - 15.3%)
  11. Cheras (159,310 - 8.9%)

Politics

The Malaysia Parliament House ( Bangunan Parlimen Malaysia), located at the end of Jalan Parlimen.
DAP (PH)
5 / 11
PKR (PH)
4 / 11
BERSATU (PN)
2 / 11

Kuala Lumpur is home to the Parliament of Malaysia. The federal Constitution stipulates the three branches of the Malaysian government: the Executive, Judiciary and Legislative branches. The Parliament consists of the Dewan Negara (Upper House / House of Senate) and Dewan Rakyat (Lower House / House of Representatives).[10]

List of Kuala Lumpur representatives in the Federal Parliament (Dewan Rakyat)

Parliament Seat Name Member of Parliament Party
P114 Kepong Lim Lip Eng Pakatan Harapan (DAP)
P115 Batu P Prabakaran Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P116 Wangsa Maju Tan Yee Kew Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P117 Segambut Hannah Yeoh Tseow Suan Pakatan Harapan (DAP)
P118 Setiawangsa Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P119 Titiwangsa Rina Mohd. Harun Perikatan Nasional (PPBM)
P120 Bukit Bintang Fong Kui Lun Pakatan Harapan (DAP)
P121 Lembah Pantai Ahmad Fahmi Mohamed Fadzil Pakatan Harapan (PKR)
P122 Seputeh Teresa Kok Suh Sim Pakatan Harapan (DAP)
P123 Cheras Tan Kok Wai Pakatan Harapan (DAP)
P124 Bandar Tun Razak Kamaruddin Jaffar Perikatan Nasional (PPBM)

Economy

A pedestrian mall by the Central Market.

Kuala Lumpur and its surrounding urban areas form the most industrialised and economically, the fastest-growing region in Malaysia.[89] Despite the relocation of federal government administration to Putrajaya, certain government institutions such as Bank Negara Malaysia (National Bank of Malaysia), Companies Commission of Malaysia and Securities Commission as well as most embassies and diplomatic missions have remained in the city.[90] The city remains the economic and business hub of the country. Kuala Lumpur is a centre for finance, insurance, real estate, media and the arts of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur is rated the only global city in Malaysia, according to the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC).[91] The infrastructure development in the surrounding areas such as the Kuala Lumpur International Airport at Sepang, the creation of the Multimedia Super Corridor and the expansion of Port Klang further reinforce the economic significance of the city.

The Merdeka 118 is the tallest building in Southeast Asia while also being the second tallest building in the world, after Burj Khalifa.

Bursa Malaysia or the Malaysia Exchange is based in the city and forms one of its core economic activities. As of July 5, 2013, the market capitalisation stood at US$505.67 billion.[92]

The Exchange 106 is the third tallest building in Malaysia, located within TRX.

The gross domestic product (GDP) for Kuala Lumpur is estimated at RM73,536 million in 2008 with an average annual growth rate of 5.9 percent.[93][94] By 2015, the GDP had reached RM160,388 million, representing 15.1% of the total GDP of Malaysia.[95] The per capita GDP for Kuala Lumpur in 2013 was RM79,752 with an average annual growth rate of 5.6 percent,[96] and RM94,722 in 2015.[95] Average monthly household income is RM9,073 (~$2,200) as of 2016, growing at a pace of approximately 6% a year.[97] The service sector, comprising finance, insurance, real estate, business services, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels, transport, storage and communication, utilities, personal services and government services form the largest component of employment, representing about 83.0 percent of the total.[98] The remaining 17 percent comes from manufacturing and construction.

The large service sector is evident in the number of local and foreign banks and insurance companies operating in the city. Kuala Lumpur is poised to become the global Islamic financing hub[99] with an increasing number of financial institutions providing Islamic financing and the strong presence of Gulf financial institutions such as the world's largest Islamic bank, the Al-Rajhi Bank[100] and Kuwait Finance House. Apart from that, the Dow Jones & Company is keen to work with Bursa Malaysia to set up Islamic Exchange Trade Funds (ETFs), which would help raise Malaysia's profile in the Gulf.[101] The city has a large number of foreign corporations and is also host to many multi national companies' regional offices or support centres, particularly for finance and accounting, and information technology functions. Most of the country's largest companies have their headquarters here, and as of December 2007 and excluding Petronas, there are 14 companies that are listed in Forbes 2000 based in Kuala Lumpur.[102]

Other important economic activities in the city are education and health services. Kuala Lumpur also has advantages stemming from the high concentration of educational institutions that provide a wide-ranging of courses. Numerous public and private medical specialist centres and hospitals in the city offer general health services, and a wide range of specialist surgery and treatment that caters to locals and tourists.

There has been growing emphasis on expanding the economic scope of the city in other service activities, such as research and development, which support the rest of the economy of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur has been home for years to important research centres such as the Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, the Forest Research Institute Malaysia and the Institute of Medical Research.[103] A new financial district for Kuala Lumpur is currently under construction: the Tun Razak Exchange (TRX), formerly known as Kuala Lumpur International Financial District (KLIFD). The TRX's landmark and prominent building is The Exchange 106 tower. The 70-acre development will be situated in the heart of Kuala Lumpur and will serve international finance and business opportunities. The new financial hub is a strategic enabler of the Malaysian government's Economic Transformation Programme (ETP), an initiative by the Malaysian government to turn Malaysia into a high income economy nation.

Tourism

The Medan Pasar with its clock tower right at the centre of the square.
Sultan Abdul Samad Building, a historic building designed in the Moorish style and formerly housed various government offices.

Tourism plays an important role in the city's service-driven economy. Many large worldwide hotel chains have a presence in the city. One of the oldest hotels is the Hotel Majestic. Kuala Lumpur is the sixth most visited city in the world, with 8.9 million tourists per year.[104][105] Tourism here is driven by the city's cultural diversity, relatively low costs, and wide gastronomic and shopping variety. MICE tourism, which mainly encompasses conventions— has expanded in recent years to become a vital component of the industry, and is expected to grow further once the Malaysian government's Economic Transformation Programme kicks in, and with the completion of a new 93,000 square meter-size MATRADE Centre in 2014.[106] The MATRADE agency is also the owner of the Malaysia International Trade And Exhibition Centre (MITEC), the largest trade and exhibition centre of Malaysia, which is a component of the larger KL Metropolis development situated in the suburb of Segambut. Another notable trend is the increased presence of budget hotels in the city.

The National Museum of Malaysia, located along Jalan Damansara.

The major tourist destinations in Kuala Lumpur include the Petronas Twin Towers, the Bukit Bintang shopping district, the Kuala Lumpur Tower, Petaling Street (Chinatown), the Merdeka Square, the Kuala Lumpur railway station, the House of Parliament building, the National Palace (Istana Negara), the National Planetarium, the National Science Centre, the National Art Gallery (Balai Seni Negara), the National Theatre (Istana Budaya), the National Museum, the Royal Museum, the National Textile Museum, Islamic Arts Museum, Telekom Museum, Royal Malaysian Police Museum, the National Mosque of Malaysia (Masjid Negara), Federal Territory Mosque (Masjid Wilayah), Sultan Abdul Samad Building, DBKL City Theatre (Panggung Bandaraya), Medan Pasar, Central Market, KL Bird Park, KL Butterfly Park, Aquaria KLCC, River of Life KL, Saloma Link, the National Monument, and religious sites such as the Sultan Abdul Samad Jamek Mosque, Thean Hou Temple and Buddhist Maha Vihara in Brickfields.[107][108] Kuala Lumpur plays host to many cultural festivals such as the Thaipusam procession at the Sri Mahamariamman Temple. Every year during the Thaipusam celebration, a silver chariot carrying the statue of Lord Muruga together with his consort Valli and Teivayanni would be paraded through the city beginning at the temple all the way to Batu Caves in the neighboring Gombak, Selangor.[109]

The entertainment hub of the city is mainly centred in the Golden Triangle encompassing Jalan P. Ramlee, Jalan Sultan Ismail, Jalan Bukit Bintang, Ampang Road and Bintang Walk as well as Kuala Lumpur's largest nightlife and entertainment hotspot, TREC KL. Trendy nightclubs, bars and lounges, such as Marini's on 57, Skybar at Traders Hotel, the Beach Club, Espanda, the Hakka Republic Wine Bar & Restaurant, Hard Rock Cafe, the Luna Bar, Nuovo, Rum Jungle, No Black Tie, the Thai Club, Zion Club, Zouk KL, Club Kyō, Dragonfly KL and many others are located here.

Retail

Kuala Lumpur alone has 66 shopping malls and is the retail and fashion hub of both Malaysia and Southeast Asia.[110] Shopping in Malaysia contributed RM7.7 billion (US$2.26 billion) or 20.8 percent of the RM31.9 billion tourism receipts in 2006.[111]

Suria KLCC is one of Malaysia's premier upscale shopping destinations due to its location beneath the Petronas Twin Towers. Apart from Suria KLCC, the Bukit Bintang district has the highest concentration of shopping malls in Kuala Lumpur. It includes: Pavilion KL, Fahrenheit 88, Plaza Low Yat, Berjaya Times Square, Lot 10, Sungei Wang Plaza, Starhill Gallery, Lalaport BBCC, Quill City Mall and Avenue K.[112] Changkat area of Bukit Bintang hosts various cafes, alfresco dining outlets, illegal activities such as prostitution and more. It is best known as one of the red-light districts in Kuala Lumpur. Bangsar district also has a few shopping complexes, including Bangsar Village, Bangsar Shopping Centre, KL Gateway Mall, Bangsar South, KL Eco City Mall, The Gardens and Mid Valley Megamall.

Apart from shopping complexes, Kuala Lumpur has designated numerous zones in the city to market locally manufactured products such as textiles, fabrics and handicrafts. The Chinatown of Kuala Lumpur, commonly known as Petaling Street, is one of them. Chinatown features many pre-independence buildings with Straits Chinese and colonial architectural influences.[113][114]

Since 2000, the Malaysian Ministry of Tourism introduced a mega sale event for shopping in Malaysia. The mega sale event is held three times a year – in March, May and December – in which all shopping malls are encouraged to participate to boost Kuala Lumpur as a leading shopping destination in Asia which has been maintained until present with new mega sales.[115]

Demographics

Ethnicities of Kuala Lumpur – 2015 Population Quick Info[116]
Ethnic group Percent
Malay
40.32%
Chinese
36.90%
Indians
8.62%
Others
0.98%
Non-Malaysian
13.18%

Kuala Lumpur is the most populous city in Malaysia, with a population of 1.76 million in the city proper as of 2016.[117] It has a population density of 6,696 inhabitants per square kilometre (17,340/sq mi), and is the most densely populated administrative district in Malaysia.[2] Residents of the city are colloquially known as KLites.[118] Kuala Lumpur is also the centre of the wider Klang Valley metropolitan area covering Petaling Jaya, Klang, Subang Jaya, Puchong, Shah Alam, and Gombak, with an estimated metropolitan population of 7.25 million as of 2017.[119]

Kuala Lumpur's heterogeneous populace includes the country's three major ethnic groups: the Malays, the Chinese and the Indians, although the city also has a mix of different cultures including Eurasians, Kadazans, Ibans and other indigenous races from around Malaysia.[98][120]

Historical demographics

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1890 20,000 —    
1900 30,000 +50.0%
1931 111,418 +271.4%
1957 316,537 +184.1%
1970 451,201 +42.5%
1974 612,004 +35.6%
1980 919,610 +50.3%
1991 1,145,342 +24.5%
2000 1,305,792 +14.0%
2010 1,588,750 +21.7%
2020 1,982,112 +24.8%
Kuala Lumpur expanded as a Federal Territory in 1974
Source: [121][122][28]

Historically Kuala Lumpur was a predominantly Chinese city, although more recently the Bumiputera component of the city has grown substantially and they are now the dominant group. The Kuala Lumpur of 1872 beside the Klang River was described by Frank Swettenham as a "purely Chinese village", although a Malay stockade already existed at Bukit Nanas at that time.[25] By 1875, after participation in the Selangor Civil War by Pahang Malays had ended, Swettenham noted Malay quarters near the Chinese area in a sketch map he had drawn. There were said to be 1,000 Chinese and 700 Malays in the town in this period. Many of the Malays may have settled in Kuala Lumpur after the war.[25] The population of Kuala Lumpur had increased to around three thousand in 1880 when it was made the capital of Selangor.[123] A significant component of the Malay population in Kuala Lumpur of this period consisted of Malays recruited by the British in 1880, mostly from rural Malacca, to establish a police force of 2–300, many of whom brought their families.[124] Many of the Malays were originally from the other islands of Malay Archipelago i.e. Sumatra and Java. The Mandailings, the Minangkabaus, Javanese, and Buginese began arriving in Kuala Lumpur in the 19th century, while the Acehnese arrived in the late 20th century.[125] In the following decades that saw the rebuilding of the town, it grew considerably with a large influx of immigrants, due in large part to the construction of a railway line in 1886 connecting Kuala Lumpur and Klang.[28]

A census in 1891 of uncertain accuracy gave a figure of 43,796 inhabitants, 79% of whom were Chinese (71% of the Chinese were Hakka 客家人), 14% Malay, and 6% Indian.[123] Another perhaps more accurate estimate put the population of Kuala Lumpur in 1890 at 20,000.[28] The rubber boom in the early 20th century led to a further increase in population, from 30,000 in 1900 to 80,000 in 1920.[55] In 1931, 61% of Kuala Lumpur's 111,418 inhabitants were Chinese,[122] and in 1947 63.5%. The Malays however began to settle in Kuala Lumpur in significant numbers, in part due to government employment, as well as the expansion of the city that absorbed the surrounding rural areas where many Malays lived. Between 1947 and 1957 the population of Malays in Kuala Lumpur increased from 12.5 to 15%, while the proportion of Chinese dropped.[126] The process continued after Malayan independence with the growth of a largely Malay civil service, and later the implementation of the New Economic Policy which encouraged Malay participation in urban industries and business. In 1980 the population of Kuala Lumpur had reached over a million,[54] with 52% Chinese, 33% Malay, and 15% Indian.[127] From 1980 to 2000 the number of Bumiputeras increased by 77%, but the Chinese still outnumbered the Bumiputeras in Kuala Lumpur in the 2000 census at 43% compared to 38%.[98][64] By the 2010 census, according to the Department of Statistics and excluding non-citizens, the percentage of the Bumiputera population in Kuala Lumpur had reached around 45.9% (44.7% Malay), with the Chinese population at 43.2% and Indians 10.3%.[128]

A notable phenomenon in recent times has been the increased portion of foreign residents in Kuala Lumpur, which rose from 1% of the city's population in 1980 to about 8% in the 2000 census, and 9.4% in the 2010 census.[98][128] These figures also do not include a significant number of illegal immigrants.[129] Kuala Lumpur's rapid development has triggered a huge influx of low-skilled foreign workers from Indonesia, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia into Malaysia, many of whom enter the country illegally or without proper permits.[130][131]

Birth rates in Kuala Lumpur have declined and resulted in a lower proportion of young people – the proportion of those below 15 years old fell from 33% in 1980 to slightly less than 27% in 2000.[98] On the other hand, the working age group of 15–59 increased from 63% in 1980 to 67% in 2000.[98] The elderly age group, 60 years old and above has increased from 4% in 1980 and 1991 to 6% in 2000.[98]

Languages and religions

Religion in Kuala Lumpur – 2010 Census[128]
Religion Percent
Islam
46.4%
Buddhism
35.7%
Hinduism
8.5%
Christianity
5.8%
Unknown / None
1.4%
Chinese Ethnic Religion
1%
Others
0.6%
No Religion
0.5%

Kuala Lumpur is pluralistic and religiously diverse. The city has many places of worship catering to the multi-religious population. Islam is practised primarily by the Malays, the Indian Muslim communities and a small number of Chinese Muslims. Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism are practised mainly among the Chinese. Indians traditionally adhere to Hinduism. Some Chinese and Indians also subscribe to Christianity.[132]

As of the 2010 Census, the population of Kuala Lumpur was 46.4% Muslim, 35.7% Buddhist, 8.5% Hindu, 5.8% Christian, 1.4% of unknown affiliations, 1.1% Taoist or Chinese religion adherent, 0.6% follower of other religions, and 0.5% non-religious.

Kuala Lumpur is one of the three states where less than 50% of the population are self-identified Muslims, the other two being Penang and Sarawak.

Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 87.4% of the Chinese population identify as Buddhists, with significant minorities of adherents identifying as Christians (7.9%), Chinese folk religions (2.7%) and Muslims (0.6%). The majority of the Indian population identify as Hindus (81.1%), with a significant minorities of identifying as Christians (7.8%), Muslims (4.9%) and Buddhists (2.1%). The non-Malay bumiputera community are predominantly Christians (44.9%), with significant minorities identifying as Muslims (31.2%) and Buddhists (13.5%). All bumiputera Malays are Muslim;[133] due to the criterion in the definition of a Malay in the Malaysian constitution that they should adhere to Islam.[134]

Bahasa Malaysia is the principal language in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur residents are generally literate in English, with a large proportion adopting it as their first language. Malaysian English is a widely used.[135] It has a strong presence, especially in business, and is taught as a compulsory language in schools.[120] Cantonese and Mandarin are prominent, as they are spoken by the local majority Chinese population.[136] Another major dialect spoken is Hakka. While Tamil is dominant amongst the local Indian population, other Indian languages spoken by minorities include Telugu, Malayalam, Punjabi, and Hindi.[137] Beside Malay, there are a variety of languages spoken by people of Indonesian descent, such as Minangkabau[138] and Javanese.

Cityscape

Architecture

The Kuala Lumpur Railway Station (right) contrasts with Keretapi Tanah Melayu (left) Administration Building, a darker, similarly Mughal-styled building. Both were designed by A. B. Hubback

The architecture of Kuala Lumpur is a mixture of old colonial influences, Asian traditions, Malay Islamic inspirations, modern, and postmodern architecture.[139] A relatively young city compared with other Southeast Asian capitals such as Bangkok, Jakarta and Manila, most of Kuala Lumpur's notable colonial-era buildings were built toward the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. These buildings were designed in a number of styles – Mughal/Moorish Revival, Mock Tudor, Neo-Gothic or Grecian-Spanish style or architecture.[140] Most of the styling has been modified to use local resources and adapted to the local climate, which is hot and humid all year around. A significant architect of the early period is Arthur Benison Hubback who designed a number of the colonial-era buildings including the Kuala Lumpur Railway Station and Jamek Mosque.

Prior to the Second World War, many shophouses, usually two stories with functional shops on the ground floor and separate residential spaces upstairs, were built around the old city centre. These shop-houses drew inspiration from Straits Chinese and European traditions.[113][114] Some of these shophouses have made way for new developments but there are still many standing today in the Medan Pasar Besar (Old Market Square), Chinatown, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Doraisamy, Bukit Bintang and Tengkat Tong Shin areas.

Jamek Mosque ( Masjid Jamek) is one of the oldest mosques still standing in Kuala Lumpur, built in 1909.

Independence coupled with rapid economic growth from the 1970s to the 1990s and with Islam being the official religion in the country, has resulted in the construction of buildings with a more local and Islamic flavour arise around the city. Many of these buildings derive their design from traditional Malay items such as the songkok and the keris. Some of these buildings have Islamic geometric motifs integrated into the designs of the building, due to Islamic restrictions on imitating nature through drawings.[141] Examples of these buildings are Telekom Tower, Maybank Tower, Dayabumi Complex, and the Islamic Centre.[142] Some buildings such as the Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia and National Planetarium have been built to masquerade as a place of worship, complete with dome and minaret, when in fact they are places of science and knowledge. The 452-metre (1,483 ft) Petronas Towers are the tallest twin buildings in the world and the tallest buildings in the country.[143] They were designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art.[144]

Late modern and postmodern architecture began to appear in the late-1990s and early-2000s. With economic development, old buildings such as Bok House have been razed to make way for new ones. Buildings with all-glass shells exist throughout the city, with the most prominent examples being the Petronas Towers and Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre. Kuala Lumpur's central business district today has shifted to the Kuala Lumpur city centre (KLCC) where many new and tall buildings with modern and postmodern architecture fill the skyline. According to the World Tallest 50 Urban Agglomeration 2010 Projection by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, Kuala Lumpur ranks 10th among cities that have most buildings above 100 metres with a combined height of 34,035 metres from its 244 high rise buildings.[145]

Parks

KLCC Park is a 50-acre urban park located in the city centre.

The Perdana Botanical Garden or Lake Gardens, a 92-hectare (230-acre) botanical garden, was the first recreational park created in Kuala Lumpur. The Malaysian Parliament building is located close by, and Carcosa Seri Negara, which was once the official residence of British colonial administration, is also sited here. The park includes a butterfly park, deer park, orchid garden, a hibiscus garden, and the Kuala Lumpur Bird Park, which is the world's largest aviary bird park.[146] Other parks in the city include the ASEAN Sculpture Garden, KLCC Park, Titiwangsa Lake Gardens, Metropolitan Lake Gardens in Kepong, Taman Tasik Permaisuri (Queen's Lake Gardens), Bukit Kiara Botanical Gardens, the equestrian park and West Valley Park near Taman Tun Dr Ismail (TTDI), and Bukit Jalil International Park.

There are three forest reserves within the city, the Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve in the city centre, the oldest gazetted forest reserve in the country 10.52 ha or 26.0 acres, Bukit Sungai Putih Forest Reserve (7.41 ha or 18.3 acres) and Bukit Sungai Besi Forest Reserve (42.11 ha or 104.1 acres). Bukit Nanas, in the heart of the city centre, is one of the oldest virgin forests in the world within a city.[147]

These residual forest areas are home to a number of fauna species, particularly monkeys, treeshrews, pygmy goats, budgerigars, squirrels and birds.

The view of Kuala Lumpur from Titiwangsa Lake Gardens

Education

According to government statistics, Kuala Lumpur has a literacy rate of 97.5% in 2000, the highest rate in any state or territory in Malaysia.[148] In Malaysia, Malay is the language of instruction for most subjects while English is a compulsory subject, but as of 2012, English is still the language of instruction for mathematics and the natural sciences for certain schools. Some schools provide instruction in Mandarin and Tamil for certain subjects.[149]

Kuala Lumpur contains 14 tertiary education institutions, 79 high schools, 155 elementary schools and 136 kindergartens.[150]

Several institutions in the city are more than 100 years old — such as Bukit Bintang Girls' School (1893–2000, relocated to Taman Shamelin Perkasa in Cheras and renamed GIS Garden International school Seri Bintang Utara), the Victoria Institution (1893); Methodist Girls' School (1896); Methodist Boys' School (1897); Convent Bukit Nanas (1899), St. John's Institution (1904), Confucian Private Secondary School (1906), Kuen Cheng High School (1908), Tsun Jin High School (1913) and Maxwell School (1917).

Kuala Lumpur is home to the University of Malaya (UM). Established in 1949, it is the oldest university in Malaysia, and one of the oldest in the region.[151] It was ranked the best university in Malaysia, the 22nd best in Asia, and 3rd in Southeast Asia in QS World University Rankings 2019.[152] In recent years, the number of international students at the University of Malaya has risen, as a result of increasing efforts made to attract more international students.[153]

Other universities located in Kuala Lumpur include Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Tunku Abdul Rahman University College (TARUC), UCSI University (UCSI), Taylor's University (TULC), International Medical University (IMU), Open University Malaysia (OUM), Kuala Lumpur University (UniKL), Perdana University (PU), Wawasan Open University (WOU), HELP University and the branch campus of the National University of Malaysia (UKM) and University of Technology Malaysia (UTM). The National Defence University of Malaysia is located at Sungai Besi Army Base, at the southern part of central Kuala Lumpur. It was established to be a major centre for military and defence technology studies. This institution covers studies for the army, navy, and air force.[154]

Greater Kuala Lumpur covers an even more extensive selection of universities including several international branches such as Monash University Malaysia Campus, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus and Xiamen University Malaysia.

Culture

Arts

Frieze depicting Malaysian history at the National Museum.

Kuala Lumpur is a hub for cultural activities and events in Malaysia. Among the centres is the National Museum, which is situated along the Mahameru Highway. Its collection comprises artefacts and paintings collected throughout the country.[155] The Islamic Arts Museum, which houses more than seven thousand Islamic artefacts including rare exhibits and a library of Islamic art books, is the largest Islamic arts collection in Southeast Asia.[156] The museum's collection not only concentrates on works from the Middle East, but also includes work from elsewhere in Asia, such as China and Southeast Asia. Kuala Lumpur has a craft complex coupled with a museum that displays a variety of textile, ceramic, metal craft and weaved products. Information on the production process is portrayed in diorama format complete with historical facts, technique and traditionally engineered equipment. Among the processes shown are pottery making, intricate wood carving, silver-smithing, weaving songket cloth, stamping batik patterns on cloth, and boat-making.[157] Royal Selangor has an ultra modern visitor's centre, which allows tours to be conducted through its pewter museum, gallery and factory. In its pewter-smithing workshop, "The School of Hard Knocks", participants are taught to create their own pewter dish using traditional tools and methods.

The Saloma Link seen at dusk.

The premier performing arts venue is the Petronas Philharmonic Hall located underneath the Petronas Towers. The resident orchestra is the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra (MPO), consisting of musicians from all over the world, and features regular concerts, chamber concerts and traditional cultural performances.[158] The Kuala Lumpur Performing Arts Centre (KLPac) in Sentul West and Damansara Performing Arts Centre (DPac) in Damansara Perdana are two of the most established centres in the country for the performing arts, notably theatre, plays, music, and film screening. It has housed many local productions and has been a supporter of local and regional independent performance artists.[159] The Future Music Festival Asia has been held in the city since 2012, featuring local and international artists.[160]

The National Art Gallery of Malaysia is located on Jalan Temerloh, off Jalan Tun Razak on a 5.67-hectare (14.0-acre) site neighbouring the National Theatre (Istana Budaya) and National Library. The architecture of the gallery incorporates elements of traditional Malay architecture, as well as contemporary modern architecture. The National Art Gallery serves as a centre of excellence and is a trustee of the national art heritage. The Petronas Art Gallery, another centre for fine art, is situated in Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC). The Ilham Tower Gallery near Ampang Park houses exhibitions of works by local and foreign artists.

Kuala Lumpur holds the Malaysia International Gourmet Festival annually.[161] Another event hosted annually by the city is the Kuala Lumpur Fashion Week,[162] which includes international brands and local designers. Also, Kuala Lumpur was designated as the World Book Capital for 2020 by UNESCO.[163]

Kuala Lumpur also is becoming the centre for new media, innovation and creative industry development in the region and hosts the international creative industry event Kreative.Asia, which gathers local, regional and international experts in the creative industry who are involved in the creation, development and delivery of interactive content, arts, community and applications. Kuala Lumpur is at the forefront of the convergence of media, art, culture and communications.

Sports and recreation

Bukit Jalil National Stadium is an all-seater multi-purpose stadium that was built in January 1995.

Kuala Lumpur has numerous parks, gardens and open spaces for recreational purposes. Total open space for recreational and sport facilities land use in the city has increased significantly by 169.6 percent from 5.86 square kilometres (1,450 acres) in 1984 to 15.8 square kilometres (3,900 acres) in 2000.[164]

Kuala Lumpur was touted as one of the host cities for the Formula One World Championship from 1999 to 2017.[165] The open-wheel auto racing A1 Grand Prix[166] was held until the series folded in 2009. The Motorcycle Grand Prix[167] races are held at the Sepang International Circuit in Sepang in the neighbouring state of Selangor. The Formula One event contributed significantly to tourist arrivals and tourism income to Kuala Lumpur. This was evident during the Asian financial crisis in 1998. Despite cities around Asia suffering declining tourist arrivals, in Kuala Lumpur tourist arrivals increased from 6,210,900 in 1997 to 10,221,600 in 2000, or 64.6%.[168] In 2015, the Kuala Lumpur Street Circuit was constructed to host the Kuala Lumpur City Grand Prix motor racing event.

Football is one of the most popular sports in Kuala Lumpur. The Merdeka Tournament is mainly held at Stadium Merdeka. The Stadium Negara is also located right next to it which is also one of the oldest indoor stadiums in the country. The city is also the home of Kuala Lumpur City, which plays in the Malaysia Super League.

Kuala Lumpur hosted the official Asian Basketball Championship in 1965, 1977 and 1985. The city's basketball supporters cheered Malaysia's national basketball team to a Final Four finish in 1985, the team's best performance to date. Further, the city is home to the Kuala Lumpur Dragons, 2016 Champions of the ASEAN Basketball League.[169] The team plays its home games in the MABA Stadium.

KL Grand Prix CSI 5*,[170] a five-star international showjumping equestrian event, is held annually in the city. This annual event draws the world's top riders and their prize horses to Malaysia.

Other annual sport events hosted by the city include the KL Tower Run,[171] the KL Tower International BASE Jump Merdeka Circuit and the Kuala Lumpur International Marathon. Kuala Lumpur is also one of the stages of the Tour de Langkawi cycling race.[172]

The annual Malaysia Open Super Series badminton tournament is held in Kuala Lumpur.

Kuala Lumpur has a considerable array of international class sports facilities after hosting the 1998 Commonwealth Games. Many of these facilities, including the main stadium (with running track and a football field), hockey stadium and swimming pools located in the National Sports Complex at Bukit Jalil while a velodrome and more swimming pools are located in Bandar Tun Razak, next to the Taman Tasik Permaisuri Lake Gardens. There are also football fields, local sports complexes, swimming pools and tennis courts scattered around the suburbs. Badminton and 'takraw' courts are usually included in community halls. The AFC House—current headquarters of the Asian Football Confederation—is built on a 4-acre (1.6 ha) complex in the Kuala Lumpur suburb of Bukit Jalil.

Kuala Lumpur has several golf courses including the Kuala Lumpur Golf and Country Club (KLGCC) and the Malaysia Civil Service Golf Club in Kiara and the Berjaya Golf Course at Bukit Jalil. The city also has numerous large private fitness centres run by Celebrity Fitness, Fitness First, True Fitness and major five-star hotels.

Kuala Lumpur is also the birthplace of Hashing, which began in December 1938 when a group of British colonial officers and expatriates, some from the Selangor Club, began meeting on Monday evenings to run, in a fashion patterned after the traditional British Paper Chase or "Hare and Hounds".[173]

Kuala Lumpur hosted the 128th IOC Session in 2015 where the IOC elected Beijing as the host city of the 2022 Winter Olympics[174] and Lausanne as the host city of the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics.[175]

Media

The Kuala Lumpur Tower is an important broadcast centre in the country.

Kuala Lumpur daily, business, and digital papers include The Malaysian Reserve, The Edge, The Star, New Straits Times, The Sun, Malay Mail, Berita Harian, and Harian Metro. Mandarin and Tamil newspapers are also published daily, for example Sin Chew Daily, China Press, Nanyang Siang Pau and Tamil Nesan, Malaysia Nanban, and Makkal Osai.

Kuala Lumpur is also the headquarters for Malaysia's state media public government terrestrial television stations: TV1 and TV2, the subsidiaries of RTM, TV Alhijrah, a subsidiary of Alhijrah Media Corporation, and Media Prima Berhad, a media corporation that houses the private commercial terrestrial television stations: TV3, NTV7, 8TV and TV9. Programmes are broadcast in Malay, English, Chinese and Tamil.

TM Tower is the headquarters of Malaysia's principal telecommunication service provider, Telekom Malaysia.

The city is home to the country's main pay television service, Astro, a satellite television service.

Kuala Lumpur female diva pop singers include Elizabeth Tan, Ernie Zakri and Azira Shafinaz.

Kuala Lumpur has been featured in aspects of popular culture such as movies, television, music and books. Television series set in Kuala Lumpur include A Tale of 2 Cities (starring Rui En and Joanne Peh). Movies set in Kuala Lumpur include Police Story 3: Super Cop (starring Jackie Chan and Michelle Yeoh) and Entrapment (starring Sean Connery and Catherine Zeta-Jones), in which the Petronas Towers were depicted in flames for a few seconds.[176]

Books set in Kuala Lumpur include KL 24/7 by Ida M Rahim, Shireen Zainudin and Rizal Zainudin,[177] My Life As a Fake by Peter Carey, and Democracy by Joan Didion.[178]

A few notable local films featured Kuala Lumpur as background location, such as Masam-masam Manis (1965), Keluarga Si Comat (1973), Jiwa Remaja (1976), Abang (1981), Matinya Seorang Patriot (1984), Kembara Seniman Jalanan (1986), Orang Kampung Otak Kimia (1988), Hati Bukan Kristal (1990), Mat Som (1990), Mira Edora (1990), Femina (1993), Maria Mariana (1996), Hanya Kawan (1997), KLU (1999), Soal Hati (2000), KL Menjerit (2002), Laila Isabella (2003), Gangster (2005), Gol & Gincu (2005), Remp-it (2006), Cinta (2006), Anak Halal (2007) Evolusi KL Drift (2008), Adnan Sempit (2010), KL Gangster (2011), Kepong Gangster (2012), Lagenda Budak Setan 2: Katerina (2012) and Kolumpo (2013). A few local films featured Kuala Lumpur during the historical era, such as 1975: Hati Malaya (2007), Petaling Streets Warrior (2011) and Tanda Putera (2013).

Kuala Lumpur is mentioned in many songs by local Malaysian artists, such as "Keroncong Kuala Lumpur'" by P. Ramlee, "Kuala Lumpur, Ibu Kota" by Saloma, "Chow Kit Road" by Sudirman Arshad, "Senyumlah Kuala Lumpur" by Alleycats, "Streets of Kuala Lumpur" by Murkyway, "K.L." by Vandal, "Kuala Lumpur" by Poetic Ammo, "Anak Dara" by Azmyl Yunor, "KL"' by Too Phat, "Kotarayaku" by Hujan and Altimet, and "Lagu Untuk Kuala Lumpur" by Tom.

Kuala Lumpur was one of the destinations in The Amazing Race Asia and The Amazing Race.[179]

Video games have also been set in Kuala Lumpur, including three levels of Hitman 2: Silent Assassin and two tracks in the racing game Burnout Dominator.

A reality game show set in Kuala Lumpur from February until April 2013 was aired on AXN Asia. The Apprentice Asia was launched on 22 May 2013.

Transportation

The decorative relief wall portraying the Rukun Negara, the Malaysian national pledge, at the Upper Concourse Level of Merdeka MRT station.

As in most other Asian cities, driving is the main commuting choice in Kuala Lumpur.[180] Every part of the city is well connected with highways. Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive road network with more transportation development planned.[181] Public transportation covers a variety of transport modes such as bus, rail and taxi. Despite efforts to promote public transport, utilisation rates are low, 16 percent of the population in 2006.[180] However, public transport utilisation will increase with the expansion of the rail network,[182] operated by Prasarana Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley via its subsidiaries Rapid Rail and Rapid Bus, using the Rapid KL brand name.[183] Since the take over from Intrakota Komposit Sdn Bhd, Prasarana Malaysia has redrawn the entire bus network of Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley metropolitan area[184] to increase passenger numbers and improve Kuala Lumpur's public transport system. Prasarana Malaysia has adopted the hub and spoke system to provide greater connectivity, and reduce the need for more buses.[185][186] KL Sentral was added on 16 April 2001 and served as the new transport hub of the Klang Valley Integrated Transit System.

Urban rail

Major urban rail transportation in Kuala Lumpur. Clockwise from top: MRT Kajang Line, LRT Ampang/Sri Petaling Line, LRT Kelana Jaya Line, KTM Komuter, and KL Monorail

The KTM Komuter, a commuter rail service, was introduced in 1995 as the first rail transit system to provide local rail services in Kuala Lumpur and the surrounding Klang Valley suburban areas. Services were later expanded to other parts of Malaysia with the introduction of the Northern and Southern sectors.[187] KTM Komuter's 175 km (109 mi) network in the Central Sector has 53 stations. It consists of two cross-city routes, namely the Port Klang Line (Tanjung Malim to Port Klang) and Seremban Line (Batu Caves to Pulau Sebang/Tampin). Transfers between the two main lines can be made at any of the four stations on the central core: KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Bank Negara and Putra.

Light Rapid Transit (LRT) Malaysia is the medium-capacity rail lines in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. The first LRT line was opened in 1996 and the system has since expanded to three lines, which opened in 1998 and 1999. Along with the MRT, the LRT is constructed and owned by the Prasarana, with operating concessions currently run by Rapid KL and Rapid Rail. In 2006, the government announced the Sri Petaling Line and Kelana Jaya line extension projects.[188] Unlike the original line, which used the fixed-block signalling block system, the extension uses the communications-based train control (CBTC) signaling system.[189][190]

Entrance A of the Tun Razak Exchange MRT station. The station is designed to look more business-friendly, located in and named after a new financial district under development, TRX.

Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) Malaysia is a heavy rail rapid transit system that constitutes the bulk of the railway network in Kuala Lumpur and the rest of the Klang Valley. The first section of the MRT opened on 16 December 2016, and the network has since grown rapidly in accordance with Malaysia's aim of developing a comprehensive rail network as the backbone of the country's public transportation system. The network consists of three lines – the 13 MRT Circle Line, looping around Kuala Lumpur, the 9 MRT Kajang Line and the 12 MRT Putrajaya Line, covering a 20 km radius in the southeast–northwest direction from the city centre, will integrate the current rapid transit system and serve high-density areas which are currently not serviced by any rapid transit system. About 90 new stations are planned in this "wheel and spoke" concept, out of which 26 in the city centre will be underground. Ridership capacity will be 2 million passengers per day.[191]

The KL Monorail opened on 31 August 2003 with 11 stations running 8.6 km (5 mi) on two parallel elevated tracks. The line is numbered 8 and coloured light green on official transit maps. It connects the KL Sentral transport hub in the south and Titiwangsa in the north with the "Golden Triangle", a commercial, shopping, and entertainment area comprising Bukit Bintang, Imbi, Sultan Ismail, and Raja Chulan.[192]

Airport rail link in Kuala Lumpur: ERL (left) and Skypark Link (right)

Kuala Lumpur is served by two airports. The main airport, Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) at Sepang, Selangor, which is also the aviation hub of Malaysia, is located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of city. The other airport is Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport, also known as Subang Skypark and served as the main international gateway to Kuala Lumpur from 1965 until KLIA opened in 1998.

KLIA connects the city with direct flights to destinations on six continents around the world,[193] and is the main hub for the national carrier, Malaysia Airlines and low-cost carrier, AirAsia. KLIA can be reached using the KLIA Ekspres, an airport rail link service from KL Sentral, which takes twenty-eight minutes and costs RM 55 (roughly US$13.50),[194] while travelling by car or bus via highway will take about an hour but cost a lot less. Direct buses from KLIA to the city centre are plentiful (every 10 to 15 minutes during peak hours), air-conditioned and comfortable with fares ranging from RM 11 (roughly US$2.70) to RM 15 (roughly US$3.70). Air Asia and other low-cost carrier flights do not fly out of KLIA main terminal, but from KLIA2, which is two kilometres from KLIA. KLIA2 is served by an extension of the KLIA Ekspres and by a free shuttle bus service from KLIA. As of 2018, Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport is only used for chartered and turboprop flights by airlines such as Firefly and Malindo Air.[195]

Buses

Double-deck buses crossing at Jalan Ampang

Bas Mini KL or Kuala Lumpur Mini-Bus Service was one of the oldest and popular Malaysia public bus service, having served Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley region. The buses were primarily painted pink with a white stripe on the sides, and had a capacity of only 20-30 passengers, due to their smaller size. The buses operated on a commission basis, with service operators paid according to the fares they collected. The mini-bus service was from 23 September 1975 and discontinued on 1 July 1998, to be replaced by the Intrakota bus service and later, Rapid Bus in 2005.[196]

Rapid Bus began the first phase of the revamp of its bus network in January 2006, introducing 15 City Shuttle bus routes which serve major areas in the Central Business District (CBD) of Kuala Lumpur. In 2008, Rapid Bus operated 167 routes with 1,400 buses covering 980 residential areas with a ridership of about 400,000 per day.[197] The buses run between four hubs at the edge of the central business district, namely KL Sentral, Titiwangsa, Kuala Lumpur City Centre, Maluri, and Medan Pasar in the city centre. These bus hubs also serve as rail interchanges, with the exception of Medan Pasar, although it is at a walking distance from Masjid Jamek LRT station. es On June 18, 2020, Rapid Bus released a new feature: real-time location of bus in Google Maps, via collaboration with Google Transit.[198][199][200][201]

Effective 10 April 2019, all RapidKL buses are implementing fully cashless journey for all routes by stages, in which the bus accepts Touch n Go card only for user convenience. These systems were fully implemented by May 27, 2019.[202] Almost 170 RapidKL bus routes are covered with the real time feature, which was expanded to the MRT feeder bus service. Rapid Bus is however not the only bus operator in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley. Other bus operators are Selangor Omnibus, Setara Jaya bus, and Causeway Link.

Taxis

Typical public cab in Kuala Lumpur

In Kuala Lumpur, most taxis have distinctive white and red liveries. Many companies operate and maintain pools of different model of cars in their own brands. Before local car production began, the Mercedes-Benz 200, Mazda 323/Ford Laser, Toyota Mark II X80 series and the Opel Kadett were used.[203] Most were scrapped and replaced by Protons, but there are still a large number of these models running the roads. Kuala Lumpur is one of the major ASEAN cities with taxis extensively running on natural gas. Taxis can be hailed from taxi stands or from the streets. Taxis may be flagged down at any time of the day along any public road outside of the Central Business District (CBD). However, increased usage of ridesharing services like Grab, MyCar and JomRides has resulted in a decrease in taxi use.[204]

Nevertheless, the London-based website, LondonCabs.co.uk has claimed that taxis in the city charge passengers high rates, refusing to turn on their meters and offering instead over-priced flat-rate fares,[205] although other passengers refute such claims. The heads of some taxi associations came out and distanced themselves from taxi drivers who had given the taxi industry a bad name, promising the public that not all taxi drivers were like that.[206]

Twin towns – sister cities

Isfahan street (formerly Jalan Selat, Straits Road) in Kuala Lumpur (above) and Kuala Lumpur avenue in Isfahan (below)

Kuala Lumpur is twinned with:

See also

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External links