Martin Scorsese

Martin Scorsese

Martin Charles Scorsese ( / s k ɔːr ˈ s ɛ s i / ; [2] italiano:  [skorˈseːze, -se] ; nascido em 17 de novembro de 1942) é um cineasta, produtor e roteirista americano. Ele recebeu muitos prêmios , incluindo um Oscar , três Primetime Emmy Awards , um Grammy Award , quatro British Academy Film Awards , três Golden Globe Awards e dois Directors Guild of America Awards . Scorsese recebeu várias honras, incluindo o AFI Life Achievement Awardem 1997, o Kennedy Center Honor em 2007 e o BAFTA Fellowship em 2012. Cinco de seus filmes foram introduzidos no National Film Registry pela Biblioteca do Congresso como "culturalmente, historicamente ou esteticamente significativos".

Martin Scorsese
Portrait of Martin Scorsese wearing a suit and a pair of glasses
Scorsese em 2010
Nascer
Martin Charles Scorsese [1]

(1942-11-17) 17 de novembro de 1942 (79 anos)
Nova York, EUA
Cidadania
  • Estados Unidos
  • Itália
Educação Universidade de Nova York ( BA , MA )
Ocupação
  • Diretor de filme
  • produtor de cinema
  • roteirista
  • ator
Anos ativos 1962-presente
Works
Filmography
Spouse(s)
Laraine Marie Brennan
( m. 1965; div. 1971)
( m. 1976; div. 1977)
( m. 1979; div. 1982)
( m.  1985; div.  1991 )
Helen Schermerhorn Morris
( m.  1999 )
Parceiro(s) Ileana Douglas (1989-1997)
Crianças 3, incluindo Domenica Cameron-Scorsese
Pais)
Prêmios Lista completa
Assinatura
Scorsese-signature.png

Scorsese recebeu um mestrado da Escola Steinhardt de Cultura, Educação e Desenvolvimento Humano da Universidade de Nova York em 1968. Sua estréia na direção, Quem está batendo na minha porta (1967), foi aceito no Festival de Cinema de Chicago . Nas décadas de 1970 e 1980, Scorsese emergiu como uma das principais figuras da era New Hollywood . Os filmes de Scorsese , muito influenciados por sua formação ítalo-americana e educação em Nova York, centram-se em homens inseguros com postura machista e exploram o crime, o machismo, o niilismo e os conceitos católicos de culpa e redenção. [3] [4]Seus estilos de marca registrada incluem o uso extensivo de câmera lenta e quadros congelados , representações gráficas de violência extrema e uso liberal de palavrões .

Seu filme policial de 1973, Mean Streets , lidando com machismo e violência, e explorando conceitos católicos de culpa e redenção, foi um modelo para seus estilos de cinema. Scorsese ganhou a Palma de Ouro em Cannes com seu thriller psicológico de 1976 Taxi Driver , estrelado por Robert De Niro , que se associou a Scorsese através de mais oito filmes, incluindo New York, New York (1977), Raging Bull (1980) The King of Comédia (1982), Goodfellas (1990) e Casino(1995). Nas décadas de 2000 e 2010, Scorsese recebeu elogios da crítica e sucesso de bilheteria com uma série de colaborações com Leonardo DiCaprio . Esses filmes incluem Gangues de Nova York (2002), O Aviador (2004), Os Infiltrados (2006), Shutter Island (2010) e O Lobo de Wall Street (2013). Voltando ao seu território familiar de filmes de crime, Scorsese colaborou com De Niro novamente em O Irlandês (2019). Outros trabalhos cinematográficos de Scorsese incluem a comédia negra After Hours (1985), o drama romântico The Age of Innocence (1993), o drama de aventura infantil Hugo(2011), e os épicos religiosos A Última Tentação de Cristo (1988), Kundun (1997) e Silêncio (2016).

Além do cinema, Scorsese dirigiu episódios para algumas séries de televisão, incluindo Boardwalk Empire (2011-2015) e Vinyl (2016), e os documentários Public Speaking (2010) e Pretend It's a City (2021). Ele também é conhecido por vários documentários sobre rock , incluindo The Last Waltz (1978), No Direction Home (2005), Shine a Light (2008) e George Harrison: Living in the Material World (2011). Defensor da preservação e restauração de filmes , fundou três organizações sem fins lucrativos: a Film Foundation em 1990, aWorld Cinema Foundation em 2007 e o African Film Heritage Project em 2017.

Vida pregressa

Martin Scorsese nasceu em 17 de novembro de 1942, na área de Flushing , no bairro de Queens , em Nova York . [5] [6] Sua família mudou-se para Little Italy em Manhattan antes que ele começasse a escola. [7] Ambos os pais de Scorsese, Charles Scorsese e Catherine Scorsese (nascida Cappa), trabalhavam no Garment District de Nova York . Charles era passador de roupas e ator, enquanto Catherine era costureira e atriz. [8] Ambos eram de origem italianadescendência: seus avós paternos, Francesco Paolo e Teresa Scozzese, emigraram de Polizzi Generosa , enquanto seus avós maternos, Martino e Domenica Cappa, emigraram de Ciminna , ambos na província de Palermo , na Sicília . [9] [10] O sobrenome original da família era Scozzese , posteriormente alterado para Scorsese devido a um erro de transcrição. [11] [12] [13] Scorsese foi criado em um ambiente predominantemente católico . [5]

Quando menino, ele tinha asma e não podia praticar esportes ou participar de atividades com outras crianças, então seus pais e seu irmão mais velho o levavam frequentemente ao cinema; foi nesta fase da sua vida que desenvolveu uma paixão pelo cinema. Quando adolescente no Bronx, Scorsese frequentemente alugava The Tales of Hoffmann (1951), de Powell e Pressburger , de uma loja que tinha uma cópia do rolo. Scorsese era uma das duas únicas pessoas que o alugavam regularmente; o outro era o futuro diretor de cinema George A. Romero . [14]

Scorsese citou Sabu e Victor Mature como seus atores favoritos durante sua juventude. Ele também falou da influência dos filmes de Powell e Pressburger, de 1947-48, Black Narcissus e The Red Shoes , cujas técnicas inovadoras mais tarde impactaram sua produção cinematográfica. [15] Em seu documentário intitulado A Personal Journey with Martin Scorsese Through American Movies , Scorsese disse que se apaixonou por épicos históricos em sua adolescência, e pelo menos dois filmes do gênero, Land of the Pharaohs e El Cid ., parecem ter tido um impacto profundo e duradouro em sua psique cinematográfica. Scorsese também desenvolveu uma admiração pelo cinema neorrealista nessa época. Ele contou sua influência em um documentário sobre o neorrealismo italiano e comentou sobre como Ladrões de Bicicleta , Roma, Cidade Aberta e especialmente Paisà o inspiraram e influenciaram sua visão ou retrato de suas raízes sicilianas. Em seu documentário, Il Mio Viaggio in Italia ( Minha Viagem à Itália ), Scorsese observou que o episódio siciliano de Paisà de Roberto Rossellini , que ele viu pela primeira vez na televisão com seus parentes que eram imigrantes sicilianos, teve um impacto significativo em sua vida. vida.[16] Ele reconhece ter uma grande dívida com a Nouvelle Vague francesa e afirmou que "a Nouvelle Vague Francesa influenciou todos os cineastas que trabalharam desde então, quer tenham visto os filmes ou não". [17] Ele também citou cineastas como Satyajit Ray , Ingmar Bergman , Michelangelo Antonioni e Federico Fellini como grandes influências em sua carreira. [16] [18] [19] [20] [21]

Ele frequentou a Escola Secundária Cardeal Hayes , para meninos , no Bronx, graduando-se em 1960. [22] Inicialmente, ele desejava se tornar padre, frequentando um seminário preparatório, mas falhou após o primeiro ano. [23] Isso deu lugar ao cinema e, consequentemente, Scorsese se matriculou no Washington Square College da NYU (agora conhecido como College of Arts and Science ), onde obteve um BA em Inglês em 1964. [22] [24] Ele passou a ganhar seu mestrado da Escola de Educação da Universidade de Nova York (agora a Escola Steinhardt de Cultura, Educação e Desenvolvimento Humano ) em 1968, [25][26] um ano após a fundação da escola. [27]

Carreira

década de 1960

Enquanto freqüentava a Tisch School of the Arts, Scorsese fez os curtas-metragens What's a Nice Girl Like You Doing in a Place Like This? (1963) e não é só você, Murray! (1964). Seu curta mais famoso do período é o quadrinho sombrio The Big Shave (1967), que apresenta Peter Bernuth. O filme é uma acusação ao envolvimento dos Estados Unidos no Vietnã , sugerido por seu título alternativo Viet '67 . [28] Scorsese mencionou em várias ocasiões que ele foi muito inspirado em seus primeiros dias na Universidade de Nova York pelo professor de cinema Haig P. Manoogian . [29]

Em 1967, Scorsese fez seu primeiro longa-metragem, o preto e branco I Call First , que mais tarde foi renomeado Who's That Knocking at My Door , com seus colegas o ator Harvey Keitel e a editora Thelma Schoonmaker , ambos se tornando longa -colaboradores de prazo. Este filme pretendia ser o primeiro da trilogia JR semi-autobiográfica de Scorsese, que teria incluído um filme posterior, Mean Streets . O crítico de cinema Roger Ebert viu o filme no Festival Internacional de Cinema de Chicago de 1967e em sua crítica elogiou Scorsese e o filme, escrevendo: "'I Call First' reúne esses dois tipos de filmes em um trabalho absolutamente genuíno, artisticamente satisfatório e tecnicamente comparável aos melhores filmes feitos em qualquer lugar. Não tenho reservas ao descrevê-lo como um grande momento nos filmes americanos." [30]

década de 1970

Scorsese tornou-se amigo dos influentes "pirralhos do cinema" da década de 1970: Brian De Palma , Francis Ford Coppola , George Lucas e Steven Spielberg . [31] [32] Foi De Palma quem apresentou Scorsese a Robert De Niro . [31] Durante este período, Scorsese trabalhou como assistente de direção e um dos editores do documentário Woodstock (1970) e conheceu o ator-diretor John Cassavetes , que se tornou um grande amigo e mentor. Em 1972, Scorsese fez o explorador da era da Depressão Boxcar Bertha para o produtor de filmes B.Roger Corman , que também ajudou diretores como Francis Ford Coppola, James Cameron e John Sayles a lançarem suas carreiras. [33] Foi Corman quem ensinou a Scorsese que filmes de entretenimento podiam ser filmados com muito pouco dinheiro ou tempo, preparando bem o jovem diretor para os desafios que viriam com Mean Streets . Após o lançamento do filme, Cassavetes incentivou Scorsese a fazer os filmes que ele queria fazer, em vez dos projetos de outra pessoa.

Defendido pela influente crítica de cinema Pauline Kael , Mean Streets foi um avanço para Scorsese, De Niro e Keitel. A essa altura, o estilo característico de Scorsese estava em vigor: postura machista, violência sangrenta, culpa e redenção católicas, local sombrio em Nova York (embora a maioria de Mean Streets tenha sido filmada em Los Angeles), edição rápida e uma trilha sonora com música contemporânea. Embora o filme fosse inovador, sua atmosfera com fio, estilo de documentário ousado e direção corajosa ao nível da rua deviam aos diretores Cassavetes, Samuel Fuller e Jean-Luc Godard . [34] Em 1974, a atriz Ellen Burstyn escolheu Scorsese para dirigi-la emAlice não mora mais aqui , pelo qual ela ganhou um Oscar de Melhor Atriz. Embora bem visto, o filme continua sendo uma anomalia no início da carreira do diretor, pois se concentra em uma personagem feminina central. Voltando a Little Italy para explorar suas raízes étnicas, Scorsese veio com Italianamerican , um documentário com seus pais Charles e Catherine Scorsese.

Scorsese seguiu com Taxi Driver em 1976, que mostrava um veterano do Vietnã que faz justiça com as próprias mãos nas ruas cheias de crimes de Nova York. [35] O filme o consagrou como um cineasta talentoso e também chamou a atenção para o diretor de fotografia Michael Chapman , cujo estilo tende a altos contrastes, cores fortes e movimentos de câmera complexos. O filme estrelou Robert De Niro como o irritado e alienado Travis Bickle , e co-estrelou Jodie Foster em um papel altamente controverso como uma prostituta menor de idade, com Harvey Keitel como seu cafetão. [36] Taxi Driver também marcou o início de uma série de colaborações entre Scorsese e o escritor Paul Schrader, cujas influências incluíram o diário do aspirante a assassino Arthur Bremer e Pickpocket , um filme do diretor francês Robert Bresson . O roteirista-diretor Schrader frequentemente retorna ao trabalho de Bresson em filmes como American Gigolo , Light Sleeper e, mais tarde, Bringing Out the Dead , de Scorsese . [37] Já polêmico em seu lançamento, Taxi Driver voltou às manchetes cinco anos depois, quando John Hinckley Jr. fez uma tentativa de assassinato do então presidente Ronald Reagan . Ele posteriormente culpou seu ato em sua obsessão pelo Taxi Driver de Jodie Fosterpersonagem (no filme, o personagem de De Niro, Travis Bickle, faz uma tentativa de assassinato de um senador). [38]

Taxi Driver ganhou a Palma de Ouro no Festival de Cannes de 1976, [39] também recebendo quatro indicações ao Oscar , incluindo Melhor Filme . O sucesso de crítica e financeiro de Taxi Driver encorajou Scorsese a seguir em frente com seu primeiro projeto de grande orçamento: o musical altamente estilizado New York, New York . Esta homenagem à cidade natal de Scorsese e ao clássico musical de Hollywood foi um fracasso de bilheteria. O filme foi a terceira colaboração do diretor com Robert De Niro, co-estrelado por Liza Minnelli . O filme é mais lembrado hoje pela música-tema do título, que foi popularizada por Frank Sinatra. Apesar de possuir o brio visual habitual de Scorsese e a bravura estilística, muitos críticos sentiram que sua atmosfera fechada de estúdio o deixou pesado em comparação com seu trabalho anterior. Apesar de sua fraca recepção, o filme é considerado positivamente por alguns críticos. Richard Brody no The New Yorker escreveu:

Para Scorsese, um cinéfilo de longa data, a essência de Nova York pode ser encontrada em sua representação nos filmes clássicos de Hollywood. Notavelmente, seu tributo retrógrado à era de ouro dos musicais e melodramas românticos noirs acabou sendo um de seus filmes mais livres e pessoais. [40]

Em 1977 dirigiu o musical da Broadway The Act , estrelado por Liza Minnelli. [41] A recepção decepcionante que Nova York recebeu levou Scorsese à depressão. A essa altura, o diretor havia desenvolvido um sério vício em cocaína . No entanto, ele encontrou o impulso criativo para fazer o altamente considerado The Last Waltz , documentando o concerto final da The Band . Foi realizado no Winterland Ballroom em San Francisco no American Thanksgiving Day, 25 de novembro de 1976, e contou com uma das mais extensas listas de artistas convidados proeminentes em um único concerto, incluindo Bob Dylan , Neil Young ,Ringo Starr , Muddy Waters , Joni Mitchell , Van Morrison , Paul Butterfield , Neil Diamond , Ronnie Wood e Eric Clapton . No entanto, os compromissos de Scorsese com outros projetos atrasaram o lançamento do filme até 1978. Outro documentário dirigido por Scorsese, intitulado American Boy , também apareceu em 1978, com foco em Steven Prince, o arrogante vendedor de armas que apareceu em Taxi Driver . Seguiu-se um período de festa selvagem, prejudicando a saúde já frágil do diretor. Scorsese ajudou a fornecer imagens para o documentário Elvis on Tour .

década de 1980

Por vários relatos (incluindo Scorsese), Robert De Niro salvou a vida de Scorsese quando o convenceu a largar seu vício em cocaína para fazer seu filme altamente considerado Touro Indomável . Escrevendo para The New Yorker em março de 2000, Mark Singer resumiu a condição de Scorsese afirmando:

Ele (Scorsese) estava mais do que levemente deprimido. O abuso de drogas e o abuso de seu corpo em geral culminaram em um terrível episódio de hemorragia interna. Robert De Niro veio visitá-lo no hospital e perguntou, com todas as palavras, se ele queria viver ou morrer. Se você quer viver, propôs De Niro, vamos fazer esta foto — referindo-se a Touro Indomável , um livro de Jake La Motta , ex-campeão mundial de boxe peso médio, que De Niro lhe dera para ler anos antes. [42]

Convencido de que nunca faria outro filme, ele derramou suas energias para fazer este filme biográfico violento do campeão de boxe dos médios Jake LaMotta, chamando-o de um método kamikaze de filmagem. [43] O filme é amplamente visto como uma obra-prima e foi eleito o melhor filme da década de 1980 pela revista britânica Sight & Sound . [44] [45] Recebeu oito indicações ao Oscar, incluindo Melhor Filme, Melhor Ator para Robert De Niro e o primeiro de Scorsese para Melhor Diretor . De Niro venceu, assim como Thelma Schoonmaker pela edição, mas o Melhor Diretor foi para Robert Redford por Pessoas Ordinárias. A partir deste trabalho, os filmes de Scorsese são sempre rotulados como "A Martin Scorsese Picture" em material promocional. Raging Bull , filmado em preto e branco de alto contraste, é onde o estilo de Scorsese atingiu seu apogeu: Taxi Driver e New York, New York usaram elementos do expressionismo para replicar pontos de vista psicológicos, mas aqui o estilo foi levado a novos extremos, empregando extensa câmera lenta, tomadas complexas de rastreamento e distorção extravagante de perspectiva (por exemplo, o tamanho dos ringues de boxe mudaria de luta para luta). [46] Tematicamente também, as preocupações de Mean Streets e Taxi Driver: homens inseguros, violência, culpa e redenção.

Embora o roteiro de Touro Indomável tenha sido creditado a Paul Schrader e Mardik Martin (que anteriormente co-escreveu Mean Streets ), o roteiro final diferia amplamente do rascunho original de Schrader. Foi reescrito várias vezes por vários escritores, incluindo Jay Cocks (que passou a co-roteirizar os filmes posteriores de Scorsese, The Age of Innocence e Gangs of New York ). O rascunho final foi em grande parte escrito por Scorsese e Robert De Niro. [47] O American Film Institute escolheu Raging Bull como o filme esportivo americano número um em sua lista dos 10 melhores filmes esportivos.. Em 1997, o Instituto classificou Touro Indomável como o vigésimo quarto maior filme de todos os tempos na lista de 100 Anos ... 100 Filmes da AFI . Em 2007, eles classificaram Touro Indomável como o quarto maior filme de todos os tempos na lista 100 Anos ... 100 Filmes (edição do 10º aniversário) da AFI .

O próximo projeto de Scorsese foi sua quinta colaboração com Robert De Niro, The King of Comedy (1983). É uma sátira ao mundo da mídia e da celebridade, cujo personagem central é um solitário problemático que ironicamente se torna famoso por meio de um ato criminoso ( sequestro ). [48] ​​O filme foi um afastamento óbvio dos filmes mais emocionalmente comprometidos com os quais ele se associou. Visualmente, era muito menos cinético do que o estilo que Scorsese havia desenvolvido anteriormente, muitas vezes usando uma câmera estática e tomadas longas. [49] Aqui o expressionismo de seu trabalho anterior deu lugar a momentos de surrealismo quase total . No entanto, ainda carregava muitas das marcas registradas de Scorsese. O Rei da Comédiafalhou nas bilheterias, mas tornou-se cada vez mais bem visto pelos críticos nos anos desde seu lançamento. O diretor alemão Wim Wenders o colocou entre seus 15 filmes favoritos. [50] Além disso, em 1983, Scorsese fez uma breve aparição no filme Anna Pavlova (também conhecido como A Woman for All Time ), originalmente destinado a ser dirigido por um de seus heróis, Michael Powell . Isso levou a uma atuação mais significativa no filme de jazz de Bertrand Tavernier , Round Midnight . Ele também fez uma breve aventura na televisão, dirigindo um episódio da série de Steven Spielberg .Histórias incríveis .

Com After Hours (1985), pelo qual ganhou o prêmio de Melhor Diretor em Cannes, Scorsese fez uma mudança estética de volta a um estilo de filmagem reduzido, quase "underground". Filmado com um orçamento extremamente baixo, em locações e à noite no bairro SoHo de Manhattan, o filme é uma comédia negra sobre uma noite cada vez mais infeliz para um leve processador de texto de Nova York ( Griffin Dunne ) e apresenta participações especiais de atores tão díspares como Teri Garr e Cheech e Chong . Junto com o videoclipe de Michael Jackson de 1987 " Bad ", em 1986 Scorsese fez A Cor do Dinheiro , uma sequência do muito admiradoRobert Rossen filme The Hustler (1961) com Paul Newman , que co-estrelou Tom Cruise . Embora aderindo ao estilo estabelecido de Scorsese, A Cor do Dinheiro foi a primeira incursão oficial do diretor no cinema mainstream . O filme finalmente rendeu ao ator Paul Newman um Oscar e deu a Scorsese a influência para finalmente garantir apoio para um projeto que era um objetivo de longa data para ele: A Última Tentação de Cristo .

Em 1983, Scorsese começou a trabalhar neste projeto pessoal há muito acalentado. A Última Tentação de Cristo , baseado no romance de 1955 escrito por Nikos Kazantzakis , recontou a vida de Cristo em termos humanos e não divinos. Barbara Hershey lembra de ter apresentado Scorsese ao livro enquanto filmavam Boxcar Bertha . [51] O filme estava programado para ser filmado sob a bandeira da Paramount Pictures , mas pouco antes do início da fotografia principal, a Paramount cancelou o projeto, citando a pressão de grupos religiosos. Nesta versão abortada de 1983, Aidan Quinn foi escalado como Jesus, e Stingfoi escalado como Pôncio Pilatos . (Na versão de 1988, esses papéis foram interpretados por Willem Dafoe e David Bowie , respectivamente.) No entanto, após seu flerte de meados dos anos 1980 com Hollywood comercial, Scorsese fez um grande retorno ao cinema pessoal com o projeto; A Universal Pictures concordou em financiar o filme, pois Scorsese concordou em fazer um filme mais mainstream para o estúdio no futuro (que acabou resultando em Cape Fear ). [52] Mesmo antes de seu lançamento em 1988, o filme (adaptado por Taxi Driver e veterano do Raging Bull Paul Schrader) causou um grande furor, com protestos em todo o mundo contra sua blasfêmia percebida.efetivamente transformando um filme independente de baixo orçamento em uma sensação da mídia. [53] A maior parte da controvérsia centrou-se nas passagens finais do filme, que mostravam Cristo se casando e criando uma família com Maria Madalena em uma alucinação induzida por Satanás enquanto estava na cruz.


Em 1986, Scorsese dirigiu o curta de 18 minutos Bad com Michael Jackson e Wesley Snipes (em sua estreia no cinema). O curta também serve como um videoclipe e foi filmado na estação Hoyt-Schermerhorn Streets no Brooklyn durante um período de 6 semanas durante novembro e dezembro de 1986. O diretor de fotografia do curta-metragem foi o frequente colaborador de Scorsese, Michael Chapman . A dança e o cinema foram fortemente influenciados pelo filme de 1961 West Side Story . Scorsese também notou a influência de seu próprio filme Taxi Driver (1976) no documentário de Spike Lee sobre o 25º aniversário do curta intitulado,Mau 25 (2012). [54] O curta foi elogiado pela crítica como um dos vídeos mais icônicos e melhores de todos os tempos; A roupa de Jackson foi citada como uma influência na moda. [55] [56] [57] Naquele ano, ele assinou um contrato com a novata The Walt Disney Studios para produzir e dirigir filmes, seguindo o sucesso de The Color of Money , e a empresa está solicitando material para possível desenvolvimento, e decidiu não decidir sobre projetos que ele esperava produzir sob o contrato de dois anos da empresa com o estúdio, e a decisão de Scorsese quer contratar diretores estabelecidos como Elia Kazan e Arthur Penn . [58]

Olhando além da controvérsia, A Última Tentação de Cristo ganhou aclamação da crítica e continua sendo uma obra importante no cânone de Scorsese: uma tentativa explícita de lutar com a espiritualidade que sustentava seus filmes até aquele momento. O diretor passou a receber sua segunda indicação ao Oscar de Melhor Diretor (novamente sem sucesso, desta vez perdendo para Barry Levinson por Rain Man ). Como um projeto de filme separado, e junto com os diretores Woody Allen e Francis Ford Coppola em 1989, Scorsese forneceu um dos três segmentos do filme New York Stories , chamado "Life Lessons". Roger Ebert's deu ao filme uma crítica mista, enquanto elogiava o curta de Scorsese como "realmente bem sucedido". [59]

década de 1990

Depois de uma década de filmes considerados pelos críticos como resultados mistos, alguns consideraram o épico gangster de Scorsese Goodfellas (1990) seu retorno à forma de direção, e seu filme mais confiante e completo desde Raging Bull . De Niro e Joe Pesci ofereceram uma exibição virtuosa da bravura técnica cinematográfica de Scorsese no filme e restabeleceram, melhoraram e consolidaram sua reputação. Depois que o filme foi lançado, Roger Ebert , um amigo e apoiador de Scorsese, chamou Goodfellas de "o melhor filme de máfia de todos os tempos". É classificado como o número 1 na lista de filmes de Ebert para 1990, junto com os de Gene Siskel e Peter Travers', e é amplamente considerado uma das maiores realizações do diretor. [60] [61] [62] O filme foi indicado a seis Oscars, incluindo Melhor Filme e Melhor Diretor, e Scorsese ganhou sua terceira indicação de Melhor Diretor, mas novamente perdeu para um diretor estreante, Kevin Costner ( Danças com Lobos ) . Joe Pesci ganhou o Oscar de Melhor Ator Coadjuvante por sua atuação. Scorsese e o filme também ganharam muitos outros prêmios, incluindo cinco prêmios BAFTA , um Leão de Prata e muito mais. O American Film Institute colocou Goodfellas em 94º lugar na lista de 100 anos... 100 filmes da AFI. Na versão atualizada de 2007, eles mudaramGoodfellas até o 92º lugar na lista dos 100 Anos ... 100 Filmes da AFI (Edição do 10º Aniversário) e colocou Goodfellas no 2º lugar em sua lista dos 10 melhores filmes de gângster (depois de O Poderoso Chefão ).

Em 1990, ele lançou seu único documentário em formato curto: Made in Milan sobre o estilista Giorgio Armani . O ano seguinte trouxe Cape Fear , um remake de um filme cult de 1962 com o mesmo nome e a sétima colaboração do diretor com De Niro. Outra incursão no mainstream, o filme foi um thriller estilizado, inspirado em A Noite do Caçador (1955), de Alfred Hitchcock e Charles Laughton . Cape Fear recebeu uma recepção crítica mista e foi criticado em muitos lugares por suas cenas que retratavam cenas misóginas.violência. No entanto, o assunto lúgubre deu a Scorsese a chance de experimentar truques e efeitos visuais. O filme recebeu duas indicações ao Oscar. Ganhando US $ 80 milhões no mercado interno, foi o lançamento de maior sucesso comercial de Scorsese até The Aviator (2004) e depois The Departed (2006). O filme também marcou a primeira vez que Scorsese usou o Panavision widescreen com uma proporção de 2,39:1.

Em 1990, Scorsese atuou em um pequeno papel como Vincent van Gogh no filme Dreams do diretor japonês Akira Kurosawa . A aparição de Scorsese em 1994 no filme Quiz Show de Robert Redford é lembrada pela frase reveladora: "Você vê, o público não sintonizou para assistir a uma exibição incrível de habilidade intelectual. Eles só queriam assistir ao dinheiro". De Fina-Cappa foi a produtora que ele formou no mesmo ano com a produtora Barbara De Fina. [63] No início dos anos 1990, Scorsese também expandiu seu papel como produtor de filmes. Ele produziu uma ampla gama de filmes, incluindo grandes produções de estúdios de Hollywood ( Mad Dog and Glory , Clockers), low-budget independent films (The Grifters, Naked in New York, Grace of My Heart, Search and Destroy, The Hi-Lo Country), and even the foreign film (Con gli occhi chiusi (With Closed Eyes)).

Scorsese in 1995

The Age of Innocence (1993) was a significant departure for Scorsese, a period adaptation of the Edith Wharton novel about the constrictive high society of late-19th century New York. It was highly lauded by critics upon its original release but was a box office bomb, making an overall loss. As noted in Scorsese on Scorsese by editor–interviewer Ian Christie, the news that Scorsese wanted to make a film about a failed 19th-century romance raised many eyebrows among the film fraternity; all the more when Scorsese made it clear that it was a personal project and not a studio for-hire job.

Scorsese was interested in doing a "romantic piece", and he was strongly drawn to the characters and the story of Wharton's text. Scorsese wanted his film to be as rich an emotional experience as the book was to him rather than the traditional academic adaptations of literary works. To this end, Scorsese sought influence from diverse period films that had had an emotional impact on him. In Scorsese on Scorsese, he documents influences from films such as Luchino Visconti's Senso and his Il Gattopardo (The Leopard) as well as Orson Welles's The Magnificent Ambersons and also Roberto Rossellini's La prise de pouvoir par Louis XIV (The Taking of Power by Louis XIV). Although The Age of Innocence was ultimately different from these films in terms of narrative, story, and thematic concern, the presence of a lost society, of lost values as well as detailed re-creations of social customs and rituals continues the tradition of these films. It came back into the public eye, especially in countries such as the UK and France, but still is largely neglected in North America. The film earned five Academy Award nominations (including Best Adapted Screenplay for Scorsese), winning the Costume Design Oscar. This was his first collaboration with the Academy Award-winning actor Daniel Day-Lewis, with whom he would work again on Gangs of New York. This was Scorsese's first film to be shot on Super 35 format.

Casino (1995), like The Age of Innocence before it, focused on a tightly wound male whose well-ordered life is disrupted by the arrival of unpredictable forces. The fact that it was a violent gangster film made it more palatable to the director's fans who perhaps were baffled by the apparent departure of the earlier film. Casino was a box office success,[64] and it received generally positive notices from critics. Comparisons were drawn to his earlier film Goodfellas, and Scorsese admitted Casino bore a superficial resemblance to it, but he maintained that the story was significantly larger in scope.[65] Sharon Stone was nominated for the Best Actress Academy Award for her performance. During the filming, Scorsese played a background part as a gambler at one of the tables.

Scorsese still found time for a four-hour documentary in 1995, titled A Personal Journey with Martin Scorsese Through American Movies, offering a thorough trek through American cinema. It covered the silent era to 1969, a year after which Scorsese began his feature career. He said, "I wouldn't feel right commenting on myself or my contemporaries." In the four-hour documentary, Scorsese lists the four aspects of the director he believes are the most important as (1) the director as storyteller; (2) the director as an illusionist: D. W. Griffith or F. W. Murnau, who created new editing techniques among other innovations that made the appearance of sound and color possible later on; (3) the director as a smuggler—filmmakers such as Douglas Sirk, Samuel Fuller, and Vincente Minnelli, who used to hide subversive messages in their films; and (4) the director as iconoclast. In the preface to this documentary, Scorsese states his commitment to the "Director's Dilemma", in which a successful contemporary director must be pragmatic about the realities of getting financing for films of personal esthetic interest by accepting the need of "making one film for the studio, and (then) making one for oneself."

If The Age of Innocence alienated and confused some fans, then Kundun (1997) went several steps further, offering an account of the early life of Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, the People's Liberation Army's entry into Tibet, and the Dalai Lama's subsequent exile to India. Not only a departure in subject matter, Kundun saw Scorsese employing a fresh narrative and visual approach. Traditional dramatic devices were substituted for a trance-like meditation achieved through an elaborate tableau of colorful visual images.[66] The film was a source of turmoil for its distributor, Buena Vista Pictures, which was planning significant expansion into the Chinese market at the time. Initially defiant in the face of pressure from Chinese officials, Disney has since distanced itself from the project, hurting Kundun's commercial profile. In the short term, the sheer eclecticism in evidence enhanced the director's reputation. In the long term, however, it appears Kundun has been sidelined in most critical appraisals of the director, mostly noted as a stylistic and thematic detour. Kundun was the Scorsese's second attempt to profile the life of a great religious leader, following The Last Temptation of Christ.

Bringing Out the Dead (1999) was a return to familiar territory, with the director and writer Paul Schrader constructing a pitch-black comic take on their own earlier Taxi Driver.[67] Like earlier Scorsese-Schrader collaborations, its final scenes of spiritual redemption explicitly recall the films of Robert Bresson.[68] (It is also worth noting that the film's incident-filled nocturnal setting is reminiscent of After Hours.) It received generally positive reviews,[69] although not the universal critical acclaim of some of his other films. It stars Nicolas Cage, Ving Rhames, John Goodman, Tom Sizemore, and Patricia Arquette.

On various occasions Scorsese has been asked to present the Honorary Academy Award during the Oscar telecast. In 1998, at the 70th Academy Awards, Scorsese presented the award to film legend Stanley Donen. When accepting the award Donen quipped, "Marty this is backwards, I should be giving this to you, believe me".[70] In 1999, at the 71st Academy Awards, Scorsese and De Niro presented the award to film director Elia Kazan. This was a controversial pick for the academy due to Kazan's involvement with the Hollywood blacklist in the 1950s.[71] Several members of the audience including Nick Nolte and Ed Harris refused to applaud Kazan when he received the award while others such as Warren Beatty, Meryl Streep, Kathy Bates, and Kurt Russell gave him a standing ovation.[72][73]

2000s

In 1999, Scorsese produced a documentary on Italian filmmakers titled Il Mio Viaggio in Italia, also known as My Voyage to Italy. The documentary foreshadowed the director's next project, the epic Gangs of New York (2002), influenced by (amongst many others) major Italian directors such as Luchino Visconti and filmed in its entirety at Rome's famous Cinecittà film studios. With a production budget said to be in excess of $100 million, Gangs of New York was Scorsese's biggest and arguably most mainstream venture to date. Like The Age of Innocence, it was set in 19th-century New York, although focusing on the other end of the social scale (and like that film, also starring Daniel Day-Lewis). The film marked the first collaboration between Scorsese and actor Leonardo DiCaprio, who became a fixture in later Scorsese films. The production was highly troubled, with many rumors referring to the director's conflict with Miramax boss Harvey Weinstein.[74] Despite denials of artistic compromise, some felt that Gangs of New York was the director's most conventional film, featuring standard film tropes that the director had traditionally avoided, such as characters existing purely for exposition purposes and explanatory flashbacks.[75][76][77]

The final cut of the movie ran to 168 minutes, while the director's original cut was over 180 minutes long.[75] Even so, the film received generally positive reviews with the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reporting that 75 percent of the reviews for the film they tallied were positive and summarizing the critics writing, "Though flawed, the sprawling, messy Gangs of New York is redeemed by impressive production design and Day-Lewis's electrifying performance."[78] The film's central themes are consistent with the director's established concerns: New York, violence as culturally endemic, and subcultural divisions down ethnic lines. Originally filmed for a release in the winter of 2001 (to qualify for Academy Award nominations), Scorsese delayed the final production of the film until after the beginning of 2002; the studio consequently delayed the film until its release in the Oscar season of late 2002.[79] Gangs of New York earned Scorsese his first Golden Globe for Best Director. In February 2003, Gangs of New York received 10 Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture, Best Director, and Best Actor for Daniel Day-Lewis; however, it did not win in any category.

The following year, Scorsese completed production of The Blues, an expansive seven-part documentary tracing the history of blues music from its African roots to the Mississippi Delta and beyond. Seven film-makers including Wim Wenders, Clint Eastwood, Mike Figgis, and Scorsese himself each contributed a 90-minute film (Scorsese's entry was titled Feel Like Going Home). In the early 2000s, Scorsese produced several films for up-and-coming directors, such as You Can Count on Me (directed by Kenneth Lonergan), Rain (directed by Katherine Lindberg), Lymelife (directed by Derick Martini) and The Young Victoria (directed by Jean-Marc Vallée). At that time, he established Sikelia Productions.[80] In 2003, producer Emma Tillinger Koskoff joined the company.[81] Scorsese also produced several documentaries, such as The Soul of a Man (directed by Wim Wenders) and Lightning in a Bottle (directed by Antoine Fuqua).

Scorsese at the 65th Annual Peabody Awards

Scorsese's film The Aviator (2004) is a lavish, large-scale biopic of eccentric aviation pioneer and film mogul Howard Hughes and reunited Scorsese with actor Leonardo DiCaprio. The film received highly positive reviews.[82][83][84][85][86] The film was a widespread box office success and gained Academy recognition. The Aviator was nominated for six Golden Globe awards, including Best Motion Picture-Drama, Best Director, Best Screenplay, and Best Actor-Motion Picture Drama for Leonardo DiCaprio. It won three, including Best Motion Picture-Drama and Best Actor-Motion Picture Drama. In January 2005 The Aviator became the most-nominated film of the 77th Academy Awards nominations, nominated in 11 categories including Best Picture. The film also garnered nominations in nearly all the other major categories, including a fifth Best Director nomination for Scorsese. Despite having the most nominations, the film won only five Oscars. Scorsese lost again, this time to director Clint Eastwood for Million Dollar Baby (which also won Best Picture).

No Direction Home is a documentary film by Scorsese that tells of the life of Bob Dylan, and his impact on American popular music and the culture of the 20th century. The film does not cover Dylan's entire career; it focuses on his beginnings, his rise to fame in the 1960s, his then-controversial transformation from an acoustic guitar-based musician and performer to an electric guitar-influenced sound and his "retirement" from touring in 1966 following an infamous motorcycle accident. The film was first presented on television in both the United States (as part of the PBS American Masters series) and the United Kingdom (as part of the BBC Two Arena series) on September 26 to 27, 2005. A DVD version of the film was released the same month. The film won a Peabody Award and the Grammy Award for Best Long Form Music Video. In addition, Scorsese received an Emmy nomination for it.

At the Tribeca Film Festival in 2007

Scorsese returned to the crime genre with the Boston-set thriller The Departed, based on the Hong Kong police drama Infernal Affairs (which is co-directed by Andrew Lau and Alan Mak). The film continued Scorsese's collaboration with Leonardo DiCaprio and was the first time he worked with Matt Damon, Jack Nicholson, Mark Wahlberg, and Martin Sheen.

The Departed opened to widespread critical acclaim, with some proclaiming it as one of the best efforts Scorsese had brought to the screen since 1990's Goodfellas,[87][88] and still others putting it at the same level as Scorsese's most celebrated classics Taxi Driver and Raging Bull.[89][90] With domestic box office receipts surpassing US$129.4 million, The Departed was Scorsese's highest-grossing film (not accounting for inflation) until 2010's Shutter Island.

The Departed earned Scorsese a second Golden Globe for Best Director, as well as a Critics' Choice Award, his first Directors Guild of America Award, and the Academy Award for Best Director. Presented with the latter, Scorsese poked fun at his track record of nominations, asking, "Could you double-check the envelope?"[91] The award was presented by his longtime friends and colleagues Francis Ford Coppola, George Lucas and Steven Spielberg. The Departed also received the Academy Award for the Best Motion Picture of 2006, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Film Editing by longtime Scorsese editor Thelma Schoonmaker, her third win for a Scorsese film.

Shine a Light captures rock and roll band The Rolling Stones' performing at New York City's Beacon Theater on October 29 and November 1, 2006, intercut with brief news and interview footage from throughout their career. The film was initially scheduled for release on September 21, 2007, but Paramount Classics postponed its general release until April 2008. Its world premiere was at the opening of the 58th Berlinale Film Festival on February 7, 2008. "Marty did an amazing job of making us look great…" observed drummer Charlie Watts. "It's all in the edits and the cuts. That's a movie maker rather than a guy just shooting a band onstage… It's not Casablanca, but it's a great thing to have from our point of view, not being egotistical. It's a document."[92]

In 2009, Scorsese signed a petition in support of director Roman Polanski, who had been detained while traveling to a film festival in relation to his 1977 sexual abuse charges, which the petition argued would undermine the tradition of film festivals as a place for works to be shown "freely and safely", and that arresting filmmakers traveling to neutral countries could open the door "for actions of which no-one can know the effects."[93][94]

2010s

Scorsese at Cannes in 2010

On October 22, 2007, Daily Variety reported that Scorsese would reunite with Leonardo DiCaprio on a fourth picture, Shutter Island. Principal photography on the Laeta Kalogridis screenplay, based on the novel of the same name by Dennis Lehane, began in Massachusetts in March 2008.[95][96] In December 2007, actors Mark Ruffalo, Max von Sydow, Ben Kingsley, and Michelle Williams joined the cast,[97][98] marking the first time these actors had worked with Scorsese. The film was released on February 19, 2010.[99] On May 20, 2010, the film became Scorsese's highest-grossing film.[100] In 2010, The Wall Street Journal reported that Scorsese was supporting the David Lynch Foundation's initiative to help 10,000 military veterans overcome posttraumatic stress disorder through Transcendental Meditation;[101] Scorsese has publicly discussed his own practice of TM.[102]

Scorsese directed a television commercial for Chanel's then-new men's fragrance, Bleu de Chanel, starring French actor Gaspard Ulliel. Filmed in New York City, it debuted online on August 25, 2010 and was released on TV in September 2010.[103]

Scorsese directed the series premiere for Boardwalk Empire, an HBO drama series,[104] starring Steve Buscemi and Michael Pitt, based on Nelson Johnson's book Boardwalk Empire: The Birth, High Times and Corruption of Atlantic City.[105] Terence Winter, who wrote for The Sopranos, created the series. In addition to directing the pilot (for which he won the 2011 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing), Scorsese also served as an executive producer on the series.[105] The series premiered on September 19, 2010, and was broadcast for five seasons.[105]

Scorsese directed the three-and-a-half-hour documentary George Harrison: Living in the Material World about the life and music of former Beatles' member George Harrison, which premiered in the United States on HBO over two parts on October 5 and 6, 2011.[106] His next film Hugo is a 3D adventure drama film based on Brian Selznick's novel The Invention of Hugo Cabret. The film stars Asa Butterfield, Chloë Grace Moretz, Ben Kingsley, Sacha Baron Cohen, Ray Winstone, Emily Mortimer, Christopher Lee, and Jude Law. The film has been met with critical acclaim[107][108] and earned Scorsese his third Golden Globe Award for Best Director. The film was also nominated for 11 Academy Awards, winning five of them and becoming tied with Michel Hazanavicius's film The Artist for the most Academy Awards won by a single film in 2011. Hugo also won two BAFTA awards, among numerous other awards and nominations. Hugo was Scorsese's first 3D film and was released in the United States on November 23, 2011.[109]

Scorsese's 2013 film, The Wolf of Wall Street,[110] is an American biographical black comedy based on Jordan Belfort's memoir of the same name. The screenplay was written by Terence Winter and starred Leonardo DiCaprio as Belfort, along with Jonah Hill, Matthew McConaughey, and others. The film marked the fifth collaboration between Scorsese and DiCaprio and the second between Scorsese and Winter after Boardwalk Empire. It was released on December 25, 2013. The film tells the story of a New York stockbroker, played by DiCaprio, who engages in a large securities fraud case involving illicit stock manipulation, by way of the practice of "pump and dump". DiCaprio was given the award for Best Actor-Motion Picture Musical or Comedy at the 2014 Golden Globe Awards. The film was also nominated for Best Motion Picture-Musical or Comedy as well. The Wolf of Wall Street was nominated for five Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Actor for Leonardo DiCaprio, Best Supporting Actor for Jonah Hill, Best Director for Martin Scorsese, and Best Adapted Screenplay for Terence Winter but did not win in any category.[111] In a 2016 critics' poll conducted by the BBC, the film was ranked among the 100 greatest motion pictures since 2000.[112]

Scorsese and David Tedeschi made a documentary about the history of the New York Review of Books, titled The 50 Year Argument. It screened as a work in progress at the Berlin International Film Festival in February 2014 and premiered in June 2014 at the Sheffield Doc/Fest.[113][114] It was also screened in Oslo,[115] and Jerusalem[116] before being shown on the BBC's Arena series in July[117] and at Telluride in August.[118] In September, it was screened at the Toronto[119] and Calgary International Film Festivals,[120] and the New York Film Festival.[121] It aired on HBO on September 29, 2014.[122]

Scorsese directed the pilot for Vinyl written by Terence Winter and George Mastras, with Mick Jagger producing and Mastras as showrunner. The series stars Bobby Cannavale as Richie Finestra, founder and president of a top-tier record label, set in 1970s New York City's drug-and sex-fueled music business as punk and disco were breaking out, all told through the eyes of Finestra trying to resurrect his label and find the next new sound. Filming began on July 25, 2014.[123] Co-stars include Ray Romano, Olivia Wilde, Juno Temple, Andrew Dice Clay, Ato Essandoh, Max Casella, and James Jagger. On December 2, 2014, Vinyl was picked up by HBO.[124] The series lasted one season. Scorsese has acted as executive producer of several indie films, like the 2014 The Third Side of the River (directed by his protege Celina Murga), another 2014 film Revenge of the Green Dragons (co-directed by Andrew Lau, whose film Infernal Affairs inspired The Departed),[125] as well as Bleed for This and Free Fire.[126]

Scorsese directed The Audition, a short film that also served as a promotional piece for casinos Studio City in Macau and City of Dreams in Manila, Philippines. The short brought together Scorsese's long-time muses Leonardo DiCaprio and Robert De Niro for the first time under his direction. The short film featured the two actors, playing fictionalized versions of themselves, competing for a role in Scorsese's next film. It was Scorsese's first collaboration with De Niro in two decades.[127] The film premiered in October 2015 in conjunction with the grand opening of Studio City.[128]

Scorsese had long anticipated filming an adaptation of Shūsaku Endō's novel Silence, a drama about the lives of two Portuguese Jesuit priests in Japan during the 17th century. He had originally planned Silence as his next project following Shutter Island.[129] On April 19, 2013, financing was secured for Silence by Emmett/Furla Films,[130] and filming began in January 2015. By November 2016, the film had completed post-production. It was written by Jay Cocks and Scorsese, based on the novel, and stars Andrew Garfield, Liam Neeson, and Adam Driver.[131] The film was released on December 23, 2016.[132][133] Scorsese was recognized as an Italian citizen by jus sanguinis in 2018.[134]

On January 10, 2019, Variety's Chris Willman reported that Scorsese's long-anticipated documentary of Bob Dylan's 1975 tour, the Rolling Thunder Revue, would be released by Netflix: "Rolling Thunder Revue: A Bob Dylan Story by Martin Scorsese captures the troubled spirit of America in 1975 and the joyous music that Dylan performed during the fall of that year. Part documentary, part concert film, part fever dream, Rolling Thunder is a one of a kind experience, from master filmmaker Martin Scorsese."[135] On April 25, 2019, it was announced that the documentary would be released on Netflix on June 12, 2019, with a concurrent theatrical engagement in twenty American, European, and Australian cities the night before, and an extended theatrical schedule in Los Angeles and New York so that the film will qualify for award consideration.[136][137] After years of development, principal photography on Scorsese's crime film The Irishman began in August 2017, starring Robert De Niro, Joe Pesci, and Al Pacino.[138] The film had its world premiere at the 57th New York Film Festival on September 27, 2019.[139] It received a limited theatrical release on November 1, 2019, followed by digital streaming on November 27, 2019, on Netflix.[140] In January 2020, The Irishman received ten Academy Award nominations, including for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Supporting Actor for Pacino and Pesci.[141]

2020s

On December 29, 2020, the trailer for Scorsese's documentary series Pretend It's a City was released. The series features Fran Lebowitz and Scorsese as they delve into her personal beliefs and thoughts on New York City.[142] The project was released January 8, 2021 on Netflix.[143] This is Scorsese's second documentary featuring Lebowitz, the first being Public Speaking (2010) which was released on HBO.[144]

In July 2019, Scorsese started scouting locations in preparation for the 2020 filming of his next film Killers of the Flower Moon, a film adaptation of the book of the same name by David Grann. Scorsese will be teaming up with Leonardo DiCaprio for the sixth time and Robert De Niro for the tenth time.[145] In December 2019, Scorsese's frequent cinematographer Rodrigo Prieto confirmed that Flower Moon was gearing up to start principal photography in March 2020, which was postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[146] In April 2020, it was announced that filming for Killers of the Flower Moon had been postponed indefinitely in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, that the potential cost of the film had ballooned to $200 million, and that Scorsese was in talks with Netflix or Apple Inc. to produce and distribute, with Paramount Pictures involved as a partner.[147][148] On May 27, 2020, Apple bought the production and distribution rights to the film, which will be released theatrically by Paramount and streaming on Apple TV+.[149] Principal photography commenced in April 2021.[150]

In November 2021, Scorsese was set to direct a biopic feature about rock band the Grateful Dead for Apple Studios featuring Jonah Hill.[151]

Filmmaking style and technique

Several recurring filmmaking techniques are identifiable in many of Scorsese's films. He has established a filmmaking history which involves repeat collaborations with actors, screenwriters, film editors, and cinematographers, sometimes extending over several decades, such as that with recurring cinematographers Michael Ballhaus, Robert Richardson, and Rodrigo Prieto.

Slow motion and freeze frame

Scorsese is known for his frequent use of slow motion, for example, in Who's That Knocking at My Door (1967) and Mean Streets (1973).[152] He is also known for using freeze frames, such as: in the opening credits of The King of Comedy (1983), throughout Goodfellas (1990), Casino (1995), The Departed (2006), and in The Irishman (2019). His blonde leading ladies are usually seen through the eyes of the protagonist as angelic and ethereal; they wear white in their first scene and are photographed in slow motion—Cybill Shepherd in Taxi Driver; Cathy Moriarty's white bikini in Raging Bull; Sharon Stone's white minidress in Casino.[153] This may be a nod to director Alfred Hitchcock.[154] Scorsese often uses long tracking shots,[155] as seen in Taxi Driver, Goodfellas, Casino, Gangs of New York, and Hugo. MOS sequences set to popular music or voice-over are regularly seen in his films, often involving aggressive camera movement and/or rapid editing.[156] Scorsese sometimes highlights characters in a scene with an iris, an homage to 1920s silent film cinema (as scenes at the time sometimes used this transition). This effect can be seen in Casino (it is used on Sharon Stone and Joe Pesci), Life Lessons, The Departed (on Matt Damon), and Hugo. Some of his films include references/allusions to Westerns, particularly Rio Bravo, The Great Train Robbery, Shane, The Searchers, and The Oklahoma Kid. Slow motion flashbulbs and accented camera/flash/shutter sounds are often used, as is the song "Gimme Shelter" by The Rolling Stones heard in several of Scorsese's films: Goodfellas, Casino, and The Departed.

Cameo appearances

Scorsese usually has a quick cameo in his films (Who's That Knocking at My Door, Boxcar Bertha, Mean Streets, Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore, Taxi Driver, The King of Comedy, After Hours, The Last Temptation of Christ (albeit hidden under a hood), The Age of Innocence, Gangs of New York, Hugo), he is also known to contribute his voice to a film without appearing on screen (e.g. as in The Aviator and The Wolf of Wall Street). In The Age of Innocence, for example, he appears in the non-speaking role of a large format portrait photographer in one of the passing scenes of the film. He provides the opening voice-over narration in Mean Streets and The Color of Money; plays the off-screen dressing room attendant in the final scene of Raging Bull, and provides the voice of the unseen ambulance dispatcher in Bringing Out the Dead.[157] He also appears as the director of fictional newly formed Vatican Television in the Italian comedy In the Pope's Eye.

Religious guilt

Guilt is a prominent theme in many of his films, as is the role of Catholicism in creating and dealing with guilt (Who's That Knocking at My Door, Mean Streets, Raging Bull, Bringing Out the Dead, The Departed, Shutter Island, and The Irishman). In a similar manner, Scorsese considered Silence a "passion project": it had been in development since 1990, two years after the release of his film The Last Temptation of Christ, which also contained strongly religious themes.[158] When asked why he retained interest in a project dealing with strong theological themes for over 26 years, Scorsese said,

As you get older, ideas go and come. Questions, answers, loss of the answer again and more questions, and this is what really interests me. Yes, the cinema and the people in my life and my family are most important, but ultimately as you get older, there's got to be more ... Silence is just something that I'm drawn to in that way. It's been an obsession, it has to be done ... it's a strong, wonderful true story, a thriller in a way, but it deals with those questions.[159]

Political corruption

More recently, his films have featured corrupt authority figures, such as policemen in The Departed[160] and politicians in Gangs of New York[161] and The Aviator.[162] He is also known for his liberal usage of profanity, dark humor, and violence.[163]

Scorsese's interest in political corruption as depicted in his films was expanded further in his 2019 film The Irishman. Richard Brody writing for The New Yorker found the main interpretation of the film to be a dark allegory of a realist reading of American politics and American society stating:

The real-life Hoffa... (was) a crucial player in both gangland politics and the actual practical politics of the day, and the movie's key through line is the inseparability of those two realms. The Irishman is a sociopolitical horror story that views much of modern American history as a continuous crime in motion, in which every level of society—from domestic life through local business through big business through national and international politics—is poisoned by graft and bribery, shady deals and dirty money, threats of violence and its gruesome enactment, and the hard-baked impunity that keeps the entire system running.[164]

Frequent collaborators

Scorsese often casts the same actors in his projects, particularly Robert De Niro, who has collaborated with Scorsese on nine feature films and one short film. Included are the three films (Taxi Driver, Raging Bull, and Goodfellas) that made AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movies list. Scorsese has often said he thinks De Niro's best work under his direction was Rupert Pupkin in The King of Comedy. After the turn of the century, Scorsese found a new muse with younger actor Leonardo DiCaprio, collaborating on five feature films and one short to date.[165] Several critics have compared Scorsese's new partnership with DiCaprio with his previous one with De Niro.[166][167] Frequent collaborators also include: Victor Argo (6), Harvey Keitel (6), Harry Northup (6), Murray Moston (5), Illeana Douglas (4), J. C. MacKenzie (4), Joe Pesci (4), Frank Vincent (3), Barry Primus (3), and Verna Bloom (3). Others who have appeared in multiple Scorsese projects include Daniel Day-Lewis, who had become very reclusive to the Hollywood scene, Alec Baldwin, Willem Dafoe, Ben Kingsley, Jude Law, Dick Miller, Liam Neeson, Emily Mortimer, John C. Reilly, David Carradine, Barbara Hershey, Kevin Corrigan, Jake Hoffman, Frank Sivero, Ray Winstone and Nick Nolte. Before their deaths, Scorsese's parents, Charles Scorsese and Catherine Scorsese, appeared in bit parts, walk-ons or supporting roles, such as in Goodfellas.[168]

For his crew, Scorsese frequently worked with editors Marcia Lucas[169] and Thelma Schoonmaker,[170] cinematographers Michael Ballhaus,[171] Robert Richardson, Michael Chapman and Rodrigo Prieto, screenwriters Paul Schrader, Mardik Martin, Jay Cocks, Terrence Winter, John Logan and Steven Zaillian, costume designer Sandy Powell, production designers Dante Ferretti and Bob Shaw, music producer Robbie Robertson, and composers Howard Shore[172] and Elmer Bernstein.[173] Schoonmaker, Richardson, Powell, and Ferretti have each won Academy Awards in their respective categories on collaborations with Scorsese. Elaine and Saul Bass, the latter being Hitchcock's frequent title designer, designed the opening credits for Goodfellas, The Age of Innocence, Casino and Cape Fear.

Personal life

In 1965, Scorsese married his first wife Laraine Marie Brennan, and they remained together for six years between 1965 and 1971; they have a daughter, Catherine, who was named after his mother.[174]

In 1976, Scorsese married the writer Julia Cameron, his second marriage; they have a daughter (Domenica Cameron-Scorsese, who is an actress and appeared in The Age of Innocence), but the marriage lasted only a year. The divorce was acrimonious and served as the basis of Cameron's first feature, the dark comedy God's Will,[175] which also starred their daughter.[176][177] She had a small role in Cape Fear using the name Domenica Scorsese and has continued to act, write, direct, and produce.[178]

Before the end of 1979, Scorsese married actress Isabella Rossellini, and they stayed together for four years, divorcing in 1983.[179]

Scorsese married producer Barbara De Fina in 1985, his fourth of five marriages; they divorced in 1991. From 1989 to 1997, Scorsese was romantically involved with actress Illeana Douglas following his fourth divorce.[180]

In 1999, Scorsese married his current spouse of over twenty years, Helen Schermerhorn Morris. They have a daughter, actress and filmmaker Francesca, who appeared in his films The Departed, Hugo, and The Aviator, and had a leading role in HBO/Sky's miniseries We Are Who We Are in 2020.[181][182]

Religion

Since his first divorce in 1972, Scorsese has had four subsequent wives[183] and had previously identified himself as a lapsed Roman Catholic as a result of the Church's doctrinal position against divorce. He has said, "I'm a lapsed Catholic. But I am Roman Catholic; there's no way out of it."[184] In 2016, Scorsese identified himself as a Catholic again, saying, "my way has been, and is, Catholicism. After many years of thinking about other things, dabbling here and there, I am most comfortable as a Catholic. I believe in the tenets of Catholicism."[185]

Filmography

As of 2019, Scorsese has directed 25 full-length films and 16 full-length documentary films.

Directed features
Year Title Distributor
1967 Who's That Knocking at My Door Joseph Brenner Associates
1972 Boxcar Bertha American International Pictures
1973 Mean Streets Warner Bros.
1974 Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore
1976 Taxi Driver Columbia Pictures
1977 New York, New York United Artists
1980 Raging Bull
1982 The King of Comedy 20th Century Fox
1985 After Hours Warner Bros.
1986 The Color of Money Buena Vista Distribution
1988 The Last Temptation of Christ Universal Pictures
1990 Goodfellas Warner Bros.
1991 Cape Fear Universal Pictures
1993 The Age of Innocence Columbia Pictures
1995 Casino Universal Pictures
1997 Kundun Buena Vista Distribution
1999 Bringing Out the Dead Paramount Pictures / Buena Vista Distribution
2002 Gangues de Nova Iorque Distribuição Buena Vista / Miramax Films
2004 O Aviador Imagens da Warner Bros. / Miramax
2006 Os falecidos Imagens da Warner Bros.
2010 Ilha do obturador filmes Paramount
2011 Hugo
2013 O Lobo de Wall Street
2016 Silêncio
2019 O Irlandês Netflix
A definir Assassinos da Lua Flor Paramount Pictures / Apple TV+
A definir Biografia Grateful Dead sem título Apple TV+

Filmes favoritos

Em 2012, Scorsese participou das pesquisas de filmes da Sight & Sound daquele ano. Realizado a cada dez anos para selecionar os maiores filmes de todos os tempos, os diretores contemporâneos foram convidados a selecionar dez filmes de sua escolha. Scorsese, no entanto, escolheu 12, que estão listados abaixo em ordem alfabética: [186]

In 1999, after the death of Gene Siskel, Scorsese joined Roger Ebert as the guest co-host for an episode of Siskel & Ebert where they each stated their 10 favorite films of the decade.[187][188] Scorsese's list numerically is:

Film activism

Scorsese has mentioned his mentors being such filmmakers as John Cassavetes, Roger Corman, and Michael Powell.[189] In film critic Roger Ebert's book, Scorsese by Ebert, Ebert praised Scorsese for championing and supporting other filmmakers by serving as an executive producer on projects of filmmakers such as Antoine Fuqua, Wim Wenders, Kenneth Lonergan, Stephen Frears, Allison Anders, Spike Lee, and John McNaughton.[190] More recently he's executive produced the films of the Safdie Brothers, Joanna Hogg, Kornél Mundruczó, Josephine Decker, Danielle Lessovitz, Alice Rohrwacher, Jonas Carpignano, Amélie van Elmbt, and Celina Murga.[191][192] Scorsese has also chosen to name filmmakers throughout the years that he admires such as fellow New York City-based directors Woody Allen and Spike Lee, as well as other artists such as Wes Anderson, Bong Joon-ho, Greta Gerwig, Ari Aster, Kelly Reichardt, Claire Denis, Noah Baumbach, Paul Thomas Anderson, Christopher Nolan, the Coen Brothers, and Kathryn Bigelow.[193][194][195][196][197][198]

Film preservation

The Film Foundation

Scorsese had been at the forefront in film preservation and restoration ever since 1990, when he created The Film Foundation, a non-profit film organization which collaborates with film studios to restore prints of old or damaged films. Scorsese launched the organization with Woody Allen, Robert Altman, Francis Ford Coppola, Clint Eastwood, Stanley Kubrick, George Lucas, Sydney Pollack, Robert Redford, and Steven Spielberg, who all sat on the foundation's original board of directors.[199] In 2006, Paul Thomas Anderson, Wes Anderson, Curtis Hanson, Peter Jackson, Ang Lee and Alexander Payne joined them.[200] In 2015, Christopher Nolan also joined the board.[201] Recent members include Spike Lee, Sofia Coppola, Guillermo del Toro, Barry Jenkins, Lynne Ramsay, Joanna Hogg and Kathryn Bigelow.[202]

The foundation has restored more than 800 films from around the world and conducts a free educational curriculum for young people on the language and history of film. Scorsese and the Foundation spearheaded fundraising for the film restoration of Michael Powell, and Emeric Pressburger's The Red Shoes (1948).[203] For his advocacy in film restoration he received the Robert Osborne Award at the 2018 TCM Film Festival. The award was given to Scorsese as "an individual who has significantly contributed to preserving the cultural heritage of classic films".[204]

In November 2020, the Criterion Channel released a 30-minute video titled, 30 Years of The Film Foundation: Martin Scorsese and Ari Aster in Conversation, celebrating the "mission, evolution, and ongoing work of The Film Foundation". Scorsese stated as of 2020, the Foundation has helped restore 850 films.

The World Cinema Project

In 2007, Scorsese established the World Cinema Project with the mission to preserve and present marginalized and infrequently screened films from regions generally ill-equipped to preserve their own cinema history.[205] Scorsese's organization has worked with the Criterion Collection to not only preserve the films but to allow them to be released on DVD and Blu-ray boxsets and on streaming services such as The Criterion Channel.[206] Films in the WCP include Ousmane Sembène's Black Girl (1966), and Djibril Diop Mambéty's Touki Bouki (1973).

The Criterion Collection so far has released two Vol. boxsets on DVD and Blu-ray, titled, Martin Scorsese's World Cinema Project. The first Volume includes 6 titles, Touki Bouki (1973), Redes (1936), A River Called Titas (1973), Dry Summer (1964), Trances (1981) and The Housemaid (1960).[207] The second volume also includes 6 titles, Insiang (1976), Mysterious Object at Noon (2000), Revenge (1989), Limite (1931), Law of the Border (1967), and Taipei Story (1985).[208]

The African Film Heritage Project

In 2017, Scorsese also introduced The African Film Heritage Project (AFHP), which is a joint initiative between Scorsese's non-profit The Film Foundation, UNESCO, Cineteca di Bologna, and the Pan African Federation of Filmmakers (FEPACI).[209] The project aims to locate and preserve 50 classic African films, some thought lost and others beyond repair, with hopes to make them available to audiences everywhere. In an interview with Cinema Escapist in 2018, Scorsese talked about the ambitious collaboration saying, "Our first goal is to launch and conduct a thorough investigation in film archives and laboratories around the world, in order to locate the best surviving elements—original negatives, we hope—for our first 50 titles."[210] He also stated that "Restoration is always the primary goal, of course, but within the initiative, it's also a starting point of a process that follows through with exhibition and dissemination in Africa and abroad. And of course, our restoration process always includes the creation of preservation elements."[210]

In 2019, the AFHP, announced that they would screen restorations of four African films on their home continent for the first time as part of the 50th anniversary of the Pan African Film Festival of Ouagadougou. The movies in question are Med Hondo's Soleil Ô (1970), Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina's Chronique des années de braise (1975), Timité Bassori's La Femme au couteau (1969), and Jean-Pierre Dikongue-Pipa's Muna Moto (1975).[211]

Legacy and honors

Scorsese receives Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement from actress Monica Vitti at the Venice Film Festival in 1995

Scorsese's films have been nominated for numerous awards both nationally and internationally, with an Academy Award win for The Departed. In 1991, he received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement.[212] In 1997, Scorsese received the AFI Life Achievement Award. In 1998, the American Film Institute placed three Scorsese films on their list of the greatest American movies: Raging Bull at No. 24, Taxi Driver at No. 47, and Goodfellas at No. 94. For the tenth-anniversary edition of their list, Raging Bull was moved to No. 4, Taxi Driver was moved to No. 52, and Goodfellas was moved to No. 92.[213] In 2001, the American Film Institute placed two Scorsese films on their list of the most "heart-pounding movies" in American cinema: Taxi Driver at No. 22 and Raging Bull at No. 51. At a ceremony in Paris, France, on January 5, 2005, Martin Scorsese was awarded the French Legion of Honour in recognition of his contribution to cinema. On February 8, 2006, at the 48th Annual Grammy Awards, Scorsese was awarded the Grammy Award for Best Long Form Music Video for No Direction Home.

In 2007, Scorsese was listed among Time magazine's 100 Most Influential People in The World.[214] In August 2007, Scorsese was named the second-greatest director of all time in a poll by Total Film magazine, in front of Steven Spielberg and behind Alfred Hitchcock.[215] In 2007, Scorsese was honored by the National Italian American Foundation (N.I.A.F.) at the nonprofit's thirty-second Anniversary Gala. During the ceremony, Scorsese helped launch N.I.A.F.'s Jack Valenti Institute in memory of former foundation board member and past president of the Motion Picture Association of America (M.P.A.A.) Jack Valenti. The Institute provides support to Italian film students in the U.S. Scorsese received his award from Mary Margaret Valenti, Jack Valenti's widow. Certain pieces of Scorsese's film-related material and personal papers are contained in the Wesleyan University Cinema Archives, to which scholars and media experts from around the world may have full access.[216] On September 11, 2007, the Kennedy Center Honors committee, which recognizes career excellence and cultural influence, named Scorsese as one of the honorees for the year. On June 17, 2008, the American Film Institute placed two of Scorsese's films on the AFI's 10 Top 10 list: Raging Bull at number one for the Sports genre and Goodfellas at number two for the Gangster genre. In 2013, the staff of Entertainment Weekly voted Mean Streets the seventh greatest film ever made.[217]

On January 17, 2010, at the 67th Golden Globe Awards, Scorsese was the recipient of the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award. On September 18, 2011, at the 63rd Primetime Emmy Awards, Scorsese won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series for his work on the series premiere of Boardwalk Empire. In 2011, Scorsese received an honorary doctorate from the National Film School in Lodz. At the awards ceremony he said, "I feel like I'm a part of this school and that I attended it," paying tribute to the films of Wajda, Munk, Has, Polanski and Skolimowski.[218] King Missile wrote "Martin Scorsese" in his honor. On February 12, 2012, at the 65th British Academy Film Awards, Scorsese was the recipient of the BAFTA Academy Fellowship Award.

On September 16, 2012, Scorsese won two Emmy Awards for Outstanding Directing for Nonfiction Programming and Outstanding Nonfiction Special for his work on the documentary George Harrison: Living in the Material World.[219] In 2013, the National Endowment for the Humanities selected Scorsese for the Jefferson Lecture, the U.S. federal government's highest honor for achievement in the humanities. He was the first filmmaker chosen for the honor.[220] His lecture, delivered on April 1, 2013, at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, was titled "Persistence of Vision: Reading the Language of Cinema".[221] Scorsese was awarded the Polish Gold Medal for Merit to Culture – Gloria Artis on April 11, 2017, in recognition of his contribution to Polish cinema.[222]

Jon Stewart with Scorsese at the Peabody Awards in 2006

Scorsese has also garnered favorable responses from numerous film giants including Ingmar Bergman,[223] Frank Capra,[224] Jean-Luc Godard,[225] Werner Herzog,[226] Elia Kazan,[227] Akira Kurosawa,[228] David Lean,[229] Michael Powell,[230] Satyajit Ray,[231] and François Truffaut.[232] He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 2008.[233] He was awarded an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Oxford on June 20, 2018.[234] As of 2021, five of Scorsese's films have been selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the National Film Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[235] In commenting on Scorsese's 2019 film The Irishman, Guillermo del Toro cited Scorsese's ability as a director for the depiction of character development comparable to the films of "Renoir, Bresson, Bergman, Oliveira or Kurosawa".[236] Sam Mendes, in his acceptance speech after winning the 2020 Golden Globe Award for Best Director for 1917, praised Scorsese's contribution to cinema, stating, "There's not one director in this room, not one director in the world, that is not in the shadow of Martin Scorsese... I just have to say that."[237] Bong Joon-ho, in his acceptance speech for the 2020 Academy Award for Best Director for Parasite, said, "When I was young and studying cinema, there was a saying that I carved deep into my heart, which is, the most personal is the most creative." He then said that this quote had come from Scorsese, which prompted the audience to give Scorsese a standing ovation.[238]

Awards and nominations

Scorsese's motion picture star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Year Title Academy Awards BAFTA Awards Golden Globe Awards
Nominations Wins Nominations Wins Nominations Wins
1974 Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore 3 1 7 4 2
1976 Taxi Driver 4 7 3 2
1977 New York, New York 2 4
1980 Raging Bull 8 2 4 2 7 1
1983 The King of Comedy 4 1
1985 After Hours 1 1
1986 The Color of Money 4 1 2
1988 The Last Temptation of Christ 1 2
1990 Goodfellas 6 1 7 5 5
1991 Cape Fear 2 2 2
1993 The Age of Innocence 5 1 4 1 4 1
1995 Casino 1 2 1
1997 Kundun 4 1
2002 Gangs of New York 10 12 1 5 2
2004 The Aviator 11 5 14 4 6 3
2006 The Departed 5 4 6 6 1
2011 Hugo 11 5 9 2 3 1
2013 The Wolf of Wall Street 5 4 2 1
2016 Silence 1
2019 The Irishman 10 10 5
Total 91 20 94 23 61 11

See also

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External links