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UNESCO

UNESCO

A Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, a Ciência e a Cultura ( UNESCO ; [1] Francês : Organization des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture ) é uma agência especializada das Nações Unidas (ONU) destinada a promover a paz e a segurança mundiais através da cooperação internacional em educação, artes, ciências e cultura. [2] [3] Tem 193 estados membros e 11 membros associados, [4] bem como parceiros no setor não governamental , intergovernamental e privado . [5]Com sede no Centro do Patrimônio Mundial em Paris , França, a UNESCO tem 53 escritórios regionais [6] e 199 comissões nacionais [7] que facilitam seu mandato global.

Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, a Ciência e a Cultura
Logo UNESCO 2021.svg
Abreviação UNESCO
Formação 16 de novembro de 1945 ; 76 anos atrás (1945-11-16)
Tipo Agência especializada das Nações Unidas
Status legal Ativo
Quartel general Centro do Patrimônio Mundial
Paris , França
Cabeça
Diretora Geral
Audrey Azoulay
Organização principal
Conselho Econômico e Social das Nações Unidas
Local na rede Internet unesco.org
A coloured voting box.svg Portal de política

A UNESCO foi fundada em 1945 como sucessora do Comitê Internacional de Cooperação Intelectual da Liga das Nações . [8] Sua constituição estabelece os objetivos da agência, a estrutura administrativa e a estrutura operacional. [9] A missão fundadora da UNESCO, que foi moldada pela Segunda Guerra Mundial, é promover a paz, o desenvolvimento sustentável e os direitos humanos, facilitando a colaboração e o diálogo entre as nações. [9] Persegue este objetivo através de cinco grandes áreas programáticas: educação , ciências naturais , ciências sociais / humanas, cultura e comunicação/informação. A UNESCO patrocina projetos que melhoram a alfabetização , fornecem treinamento técnico e educação, avançam a ciência, protegem a mídia independente e a liberdade de imprensa , preservam a história regional e cultural e promovem a diversidade cultural . [ citação necessária ]

Como ponto focal para a cultura e a ciência mundiais, as atividades da UNESCO se ampliaram ao longo dos anos; auxilia na tradução e disseminação da literatura mundial, ajuda a estabelecer e proteger Sítios do Patrimônio Mundial de importância cultural e natural , trabalha para reduzir a divisão digital mundial e cria sociedades do conhecimento inclusivas por meio da informação e da comunicação. [10] A UNESCO lançou várias iniciativas e movimentos globais, como Educação para Todos , para avançar ainda mais em seus objetivos centrais.

A UNESCO é governada pela Conferência Geral, composta por estados membros e membros associados, que se reúne semestralmente para definir os programas da agência e o orçamento. Ele também elege membros do Conselho Executivo, que administra o trabalho da UNESCO, e nomeia a cada quatro anos um Diretor-Geral, que atua como administrador-chefe da UNESCO. A UNESCO é membro do Grupo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável das Nações Unidas , [11] uma coalizão de agências e organizações da ONU destinadas a cumprir os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável .

História

Origens

A UNESCO e seu mandato para a cooperação internacional podem ser rastreados até uma resolução da Liga das Nações em 21 de setembro de 1921, para eleger uma Comissão para estudar a viabilidade de as nações compartilharem livremente realizações culturais, educacionais e científicas. [12] [13] Este novo órgão, o Comitê Internacional de Cooperação Intelectual (ICIC) foi criado em 1922 [14] e contou com figuras como Henri Bergson , Albert Einstein , Marie Curie , Robert A. Millikan e Gonzague de Reynold entre seus membros (sendo assim uma pequena comissão da Liga das Nações essencialmente centrada na Europa Ocidental[15] ). O Instituto Internacional de Cooperação Intelectual (IIIC) foi então criado em Paris, em setembro de 1924, para atuar como órgão executor do ICIC. [16] No entanto, o início da Segunda Guerra Mundial interrompeu amplamente o trabalho dessas organizações predecessoras. [17] Quanto às iniciativas privadas, o Bureau Internacional de Educação (IBE) começou a funcionar como organização não governamental a serviço do desenvolvimento educacional internacional desde dezembro de 1925 [18] e ingressou na UNESCO em 2021, após ter estabelecido uma comissão conjunta em 1952. [ carece de fontes ]

Criação

Após a assinatura da Carta do Atlântico e da Declaração das Nações Unidas , a Conferência dos Ministros Aliados da Educação (CAME) iniciou reuniões em Londres, que continuaram de 16 de novembro de 1942 a 5 de dezembro de 1945. Em 30 de outubro de 1943, a necessidade de uma organização foi expressa na Declaração de Moscou, acordada pela China , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos e URSS. Isto foi seguido pelas propostas da Conferência de Dumbarton Oaks de 9 de outubro de 1944. Sob proposta do CAME e de acordo com as recomendações da Conferência das Nações Unidas sobre Organização Internacional(UNCIO), realizada em São Francisco em abril-junho de 1945, uma Conferência das Nações Unidas para o estabelecimento de uma organização educacional e cultural (ECO/CONF) foi convocada em Londres de 1 a 16 de novembro de 1945 com 44 governos representados. A ideia da UNESCO foi amplamente desenvolvida por Rab Butler , o Ministro da Educação do Reino Unido, que teve grande influência em seu desenvolvimento. [19] No ECO/CONF, a Constituição da UNESCO foi apresentada e assinada por 37 países, e uma Comissão Preparatória foi estabelecida. [20] A Comissão Preparatória funcionou entre 16 de novembro de 1945 e 4 de novembro de 1946 – data em que a Constituição da UNESCO entrou em vigor com o depósito da vigésima ratificação por um estado membro.[21]

A primeira Conferência Geral ocorreu de 19 de novembro a 10 de dezembro de 1946, e elegeu o Dr. Julian Huxley para Diretor-Geral. [22] O Coronel dos Estados Unidos, presidente da Universidade e defensor dos direitos civis, Dr. Blake R. Van Leer também se juntou como membro. [23] A Constituição foi alterada em novembro de 1954, quando a Conferência Geral decidiu que os membros do Conselho Executivo seriam representantes dos governos dos Estados dos quais são nacionais e não agiriam, como antes, em sua capacidade pessoal. [24]Essa mudança na governança distinguiu a UNESCO de seu antecessor, o ICIC, na forma como os Estados membros trabalhariam juntos nas áreas de competência da organização. À medida que os estados membros trabalharam juntos ao longo do tempo para cumprir o mandato da UNESCO, fatores políticos e históricos moldaram as operações da organização em particular durante a Guerra Fria, o processo de descolonização e a dissolução da URSS. [25] [26]

Desenvolvimento

Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists (among them was Claude Lévi-Strauss) and other scientists in 1950[27] and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice.[28] In 1956, member Blake R. Van Leer was president at Georgia Tech and fought to allow the first African American to play in the 1956 Sugar Bowl.[29] Later in In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems".[30] South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela.[31][32]

O trabalho inicial da UNESCO no campo da educação incluiu o projeto piloto sobre educação fundamental no Vale do Marbial, Haiti, iniciado em 1947. [33] Este projeto foi seguido por missões de especialistas a outros países, incluindo, por exemplo, uma missão ao Afeganistão em 1949. [34] Em 1948, a UNESCO recomendou que os Estados Membros tornassem o ensino primário gratuito obrigatório e universal. [35] Em 1990, a Conferência Mundial sobre Educação para Todos, em Jomtien , Tailândia, lançou um movimento global para fornecer educação básica para todas as crianças, jovens e adultos. [36] Dez anos depois, o Fórum Mundial de Educação de 2000, realizado em Dakar, Senegal, levou os governos membros a se comprometerem a alcançar a educação básica para todos até 2015. [37]

As primeiras atividades culturais da UNESCO incluíram a Campanha da Núbia, lançada em 1960. [38] O objetivo da campanha era mover o Grande Templo de Abu Simbel para evitar que fosse inundado pelo Nilo após a construção da represa de Aswan . Durante a campanha de 20 anos, 22 monumentos e conjuntos arquitetônicos foram realocados. Esta foi a primeira e maior de uma série de campanhas, incluindo Mohenjo-daro (Paquistão), Fes (Marrocos), Katmandu (Nepal), Borobudur (Indonésia) e a Acrópole (Grécia). [39]O trabalho da organização sobre o patrimônio levou à adoção, em 1972, da Convenção sobre a Proteção do Patrimônio Mundial Cultural e Natural. [40] O Comitê do Patrimônio Mundial foi estabelecido em 1976 e os primeiros sítios inscritos na Lista do Patrimônio Mundial em 1978. [41] Desde então, importantes instrumentos legais sobre patrimônio cultural e diversidade foram adotados pelos estados membros da UNESCO em 2003 (Convenção para a Salvaguarda do Patrimônio Cultural Imaterial [42] ) e 2005 ( Convenção sobre a Proteção e Promoção da Diversidade das Expressões Culturais [43] ).

Uma reunião intergovernamental da UNESCO em Paris em dezembro de 1951 levou à criação do Conselho Europeu para Pesquisa Nuclear , que foi responsável por estabelecer a Organização Europeia para Pesquisa Nuclear (CERN) [44] mais tarde, em 1954. [ citação necessária ]

A programação da Zona Árida, 1948-1966, é outro exemplo de um importante projeto inicial da UNESCO no campo das ciências naturais. [45] Em 1968, a UNESCO organizou a primeira conferência intergovernamental destinada a conciliar o meio ambiente e o desenvolvimento, problema que continua a ser abordado no campo do desenvolvimento sustentável . O principal resultado da conferência de 1968 foi a criação do Programa Homem e Biosfera da UNESCO . [46]

A UNESCO foi creditada com a difusão das burocracias científicas nacionais. [47]

No campo da comunicação, o “livre fluxo de ideias por palavra e imagem” está presente na constituição da UNESCO desde seus primórdios, seguindo a experiência da Segunda Guerra Mundial, quando o controle da informação era fator de doutrinação das populações para a agressão. [48] ​​Nos anos que se seguiram à Segunda Guerra Mundial, os esforços concentraram-se na reconstrução e na identificação das necessidades de meios de comunicação de massa em todo o mundo. A UNESCO começou a organizar treinamento e educação para jornalistas na década de 1950. [49] Em resposta aos apelos por uma " Nova Ordem Mundial de Informação e Comunicação " no final da década de 1970, a UNESCO estabeleceu a Comissão Internacional para o Estudo de Problemas de Comunicação,Relatório MacBride (em homenagem ao presidente da comissão, o Prêmio Nobel da Paz Seán MacBride ). [51] No mesmo ano, a UNESCO criou o Programa Internacional para o Desenvolvimento da Comunicação (IPDC), um fórum multilateral destinado a promover o desenvolvimento da mídia nos países em desenvolvimento. [52] Em 1991, a Conferência Geral da UNESCO endossou a Declaração de Windhoek sobre independência e pluralismo da mídia, que levou a Assembléia Geral da ONU a declarar a data de sua adoção, 3 de maio, como o Dia Mundial da Liberdade de Imprensa . [53] Desde 1997, a UNESCO concedeu o Prêmio Mundial de Liberdade de Imprensa UNESCO / Guillermo Canocada 3 de maio. Na preparação para a Cúpula Mundial sobre a Sociedade da Informação em 2003 ( Genebra ) e 2005 ( Túnis ), a UNESCO introduziu o Programa Informação para Todos . [54]

século 21

A UNESCO admitiu a Palestina como membro em 2011. [55] [56] As leis aprovadas nos Estados Unidos depois que a Palestina solicitou a adesão à UNESCO e à OMS em abril de 1989 [57] [58] significam que os EUA não podem contribuir financeiramente para qualquer organização da ONU que aceita a Palestina como membro pleno. [59] [60] Como resultado, os EUA retiraram seu financiamento, que representava cerca de 22% do orçamento da UNESCO. [61] Israel também reagiu à admissão da Palestina à UNESCO congelando os pagamentos israelenses à UNESCO e impondo sanções à Autoridade Palestina , [62] afirmando que a admissão da Palestina seria prejudicial "para possíveis negociações de paz".[63] Dois anos depois de terem parado de pagar suas dívidas à UNESCO, os EUA e Israel perderam os direitos de voto da UNESCO em 2013 sem perder o direito de serem eleitos; assim, os EUA foram eleitos como membros do Conselho Executivo para o período 2016–19. [64] Em 2019, Israel deixou a UNESCO após 69 anos de adesão, com o embaixador de Israel na ONU Danny Danon escrevendo: "A UNESCO é o órgão que continuamente reescreve a história, inclusive apagando a conexão judaica com Jerusalém... manipulados pelos inimigos de Israel... não seremos membros de uma organização que age deliberadamente contra nós". [65]

Atividades

Escritórios da UNESCO em Brasília

A UNESCO implementa suas atividades por meio de cinco áreas programáticas: educação, ciências naturais, ciências sociais e humanas, cultura e comunicação e informação.

A UNESCO não credencia instituições de ensino superior. [66]

O portal de transparência da UNESCO [85] foi projetado para permitir o acesso público a informações sobre as atividades da Organização, como seu orçamento agregado para um biênio, bem como links para documentos programáticos e financeiros relevantes. Esses dois conjuntos distintos de informações são publicados no registro IATI , respectivamente com base no IATI Activity Standard e no IATI Organization Standard.

Houve propostas para estabelecer duas novas listas da UNESCO. A primeira lista proposta se concentrará no patrimônio cultural móvel, como artefatos, pinturas e biofatos. A lista pode incluir objetos culturais, como o Jomon Venus do Japão , a Mona Lisa da França, a Faca Gebel el-Arak do Egito , A Nona Onda da Rússia, a Mulher Sentada de Çatalhöyük da Turquia, o David (Michelangelo) de Itália, o Mathura Herakles da Índia, o Manunggul Jar das Filipinas, a Coroa de Baekje da Coreia do Sul, o Hay Waindo Reino Unido e os Bronzes do Benin da Nigéria. A segunda lista proposta incidirá sobre as espécies vivas do mundo, como o dragão de komodo da Indonésia, o panda da China, a águia americana dos países da América do Norte, o sim-sim de Madagascar, o leão asiático da Índia, o kakapo de Nova Zelândia, e a anta da montanha da Colômbia, Equador e Peru. [86] [87]

meios de comunicação

A UNESCO e suas instituições especializadas publicam várias revistas.

A revista UNESCO Courier afirma sua missão de "promover os ideais da UNESCO, manter uma plataforma para o diálogo entre culturas e fornecer um fórum para o debate internacional". Desde março de 2006 está disponível online, com edições impressas limitadas. Seus artigos expressam as opiniões dos autores que não são necessariamente as opiniões da UNESCO. Houve um hiato na publicação entre 2012 e 2017. [88]

Em 1950, a UNESCO iniciou a revisão trimestral Impact of Science on Society (também conhecida como Impact ) para discutir a influência da ciência na sociedade. A revista cessou a publicação em 1992. [89] A UNESCO também publicou o Museum International Quarterly a partir do ano de 1948.

ONGs oficiais da UNESCO

A UNESCO mantém relações oficiais com 322 organizações não governamentais (ONGs) internacionais. [90] A maioria deles é o que a UNESCO chama de "operacional"; alguns seletos são "formais". [91] A forma mais alta de afiliação à UNESCO é "associado formal", e as 22 ONGs [92] com relações de associado formal (ASC) que ocupam cargos na UNESCO são:

Abr Organização
IB Bacharelado Internacional
CCIVS Comitê Coordenador do Serviço Voluntário Internacional
CIPSH Conselho Internacional de Filosofia e Estudos Humanísticos ( Conseil International de Philosophie et des Sciences Humanes ; publica Diógenes )
CIOFF Conselho Internacional de Organizações de Festivais de Folclore e Artes Folclóricas ( Conseil International des Organizations de Festivals de Folklore et d'Arts Traditionnels )
EI Educação Internacional
IAU Associação Internacional de Universidades
IFTC Conselho Internacional de Cinema, Televisão e Comunicação Audiovisual
ICOM Conselho Internacional de Museus
ICSSPE Conselho Internacional de Ciências do Esporte e Educação Física
ICA Conselho Internacional de Arquivos
ICOMOS Conselho Internacional de Monumentos e Sítios
FIJ Federação Internacional de Jornalistas
IFLA Federação Internacional de Associações e Instituições de Bibliotecas
IFPA Federação Internacional de Associações de Poesia
IMC Conselho Internacional de Música
IPA Associação Internacional de Polícia
INSULA Conselho Científico Internacional para o Desenvolvimento Insular
ISC Conselho Científico Internacional (anteriormente ICSU e ISSC )
ITI Instituto Internacional de Teatro
IUCN União Internacional para a Conservação da Natureza e dos Recursos Naturais
IUTÃO União Internacional de Associações e Organizações Técnicas
UIA União de Associações Internacionais
WAN Associação Mundial de Jornais
WFEO Federação Mundial de Organizações de Engenharia
WFUCA Federação Mundial de Clubes, Centros e Associações da UNESCO

Institutos e centros

Os institutos são departamentos especializados da organização que apóiam o programa da UNESCO, fornecendo suporte especializado para clusters e escritórios nacionais.

Abr Nome Localização
IBE Secretaria Internacional de Educação Genebra [93]
UIL Instituto UNESCO para Aprendizagem ao Longo da Vida Hamburgo [94]
IIEP Instituto Internacional de Planejamento Educacional da UNESCO Paris (sede) e Buenos Aires e Dakar (escritórios regionais) [95]
IITE Instituto UNESCO de Tecnologias da Informação na Educação Moscou [96]
IICBA Instituto Internacional da UNESCO para Capacitação na África Adis Abeba [97]
IESALC Instituto Internacional de Educação Superior da UNESCO na América Latina e no Caribe Caracas [98]
MGIEP Instituto Mahatma Gandhi de Educação para a Paz e Desenvolvimento Sustentável Nova Deli [99]
UNESCO-UNEVOC Centro Internacional UNESCO-UNEVOC para Educação e Formação Técnica e Profissional Bona [100]
IHE IHE-Delft Institute for Water Education Delft [101]
ICTP Centro Internacional de Física Teórica Trieste [102]
UIS Instituto de Estatística da UNESCO Montréal [103]

Prêmios

A UNESCO concede 22 prêmios [104] em educação, ciência, cultura e paz:

Prêmios inativos

Dias Internacionais observados na UNESCO

Os Dias Internacionais observados na UNESCO são fornecidos na tabela abaixo: [105]

Encontro Nome
14 de janeiro Dia Mundial da Lógica
24 de janeiro Dia Internacional da Educação
27 de janeiro Dia Internacional de Comemoração em Memória das Vítimas do Holocausto
11 de fevereiro Dia Internacional das Mulheres e Meninas na Ciência
13 de fevereiro Dia Mundial do Rádio
21 de fevereiro Dia Internacional da Língua Materna
8 de março Dia Internacional da Mulher
14 de março Dia Internacional da Matemática
20 de março Dia Internacional da Francofonia
21 de março Dia Internacional de Nowruz
21 de março Dia Mundial da Poesia
21 de março Dia Internacional para a Eliminação da Discriminação Racial
22 de março Dia Mundial da Água
5 de abril Dia Internacional da Consciência
6 de abril Dia Internacional do Desporto para o Desenvolvimento e a Paz
15 de abril Dia Mundial da Arte
23 de abril Dia Mundial do Livro e dos Direitos Autorais
30 de abril Dia Internacional do Jazz
3 de maio Dia Mundial da Liberdade de Imprensa
5 de maio Dia do Património Mundial Africano
5 de maio Dia Mundial da Língua Portuguesa
16 de maio Dia Internacional da Luz
21 de maio Dia Mundial da Diversidade Cultural para o Diálogo e o Desenvolvimento
22 de maio Dia Internacional da Diversidade Biológica
5 de junho Dia Mundial do Meio Ambiente
8 de junho Dia Mundial dos Oceanos
17 de junho Dia Mundial de Combate à Desertificação e à Seca
18 de julho Dia Internacional Nelson Mandela
9 de agosto Dia Internacional dos Povos Indígenas do Mundo
12 de agosto Dia Internacional da Juventude
23 de agosto Dia Internacional em Memória do Tráfico de Escravos e sua Abolição
8 de setembro Dia Internacional da Alfabetização
15 de setembro Dia Internacional da Democracia
21 de setembro Dia Internacional da Paz
28 de setembro Dia Internacional do Acesso Universal à Informação
5 de outubro Dia Mundial do Professor
11 de outubro Dia Internacional da Menina
13 de outubro Dia Internacional para a Redução de Desastres
17 de outubro Dia Internacional para a Erradicação da Pobreza
24 de outubro Dia das Nações Unidas
27 de outubro Dia Mundial do Património Audiovisual
2 de novembro Dia Internacional para Acabar com a Impunidade de Crimes Contra Jornalistas [106]
5 de novembro Dia Mundial da Língua Romani
10 de novembro Dia Mundial da Ciência para a Paz e o Desenvolvimento
3ª quinta-feira de novembro Dia Mundial da Filosofia
16 de novembro Dia Internacional da Tolerância
25 de novembro Dia Internacional para a Eliminação da Violência contra as Mulheres
29 de novembro Dia Internacional de Solidariedade ao Povo Palestino
1º de dezembro Dia Mundial da AIDS
3 de dezembro Dia Internacional das Pessoas com Deficiência
10 de dezembro Dia dos Direitos Humanos
18 de dezembro Dia Internacional do Migrante
18 de dezembro Dia Mundial da Língua Árabe

Estados membros

Em janeiro de 2019, a UNESCO contava com 193 estados membros e 11 membros associados. [107] Alguns membros não são estados independentes e alguns membros têm Comitês Organizadores Nacionais adicionais de alguns de seus territórios dependentes . [108] Os Estados Partes da UNESCO são os Estados membros das Nações Unidas (exceto Liechtenstein , Estados Unidos [109] e Israel [110] ), bem como as Ilhas Cook , Niue e Palestina . [111] [112] Os Estados Unidos e Israel deixaram a UNESCO em 31 de dezembro de 2018. [113]

Órgãos governantes

Diretor geral

Em 2022, havia 11 Diretores-Gerais da UNESCO desde a sua criação – nove homens e duas mulheres. Os 11 Diretores-Gerais da UNESCO vieram de seis regiões dentro da organização: Europa Ocidental (5), América Central (1), América do Norte (2), África Ocidental (1), Ásia Oriental (1) e Europa Oriental ( 1).

Até o momento, não houve Diretor-Geral eleito das dez regiões restantes da UNESCO: Sudeste Asiático, Sul da Ásia, Ásia Central e do Norte, Oriente Médio, Norte da África, África Oriental, África Central, África do Sul, Austrália-Oceania e América do Sul.

A lista dos Diretores-Gerais da UNESCO desde a sua criação em 1946 é a seguinte: [114]

Nome País Prazo
Julian Huxley  Reino Unido 1946-1948
Jaime Torres Bodet  México 1948–1952
John Wilkinson Taylor  Estados Unidos atuando 1952-1953
Lutero Evans  Estados Unidos 1953-1958
Vittorino Veronese  Itália 1958-1961
René Maheu  França atuando 1961; 1961–1974
Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow  Senegal 1974-1987
Federico Mayor Saragoça  Espanha 1987-1999
Koichiro Matsuura  Japão 1999–2009
Irina Bokova  Bulgária 2009–2017
Audrey Azoulay  França 2017 – Titular

Conferência Geral

Esta é a lista das sessões da Conferência Geral da UNESCO realizadas desde 1946: [115]

Sessão Localização Ano Presidido por a partir de
Paris 1946 Leon Blum  França
Cidade do México 1947 Manuel Gual Vidal  México
Beirute 1948 Hamid Bey Frangie  Líbano
1º extraordinário Paris 1948
Paris 1949 Eduardo Ronald Walker  Austrália
5 ª Florença 1950 Stefano Jacini  Itália
Paris 1951 Howland H. Sargento  Estados Unidos
Paris 1952 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan  Índia
2º extraordinário Paris 1953
Montevidéu 1954 Justino Zavala Muniz  Uruguai
Nova Delhi 1956 Abu Kalam Azad  Índia
10º Paris 1958 Jean Berthoin  França
11º Paris 1960 Akale-Work Abte-Wold  Etiópia
12º Paris 1962 Paulo de Berrêdo Carneiro  Brazil
13th Paris 1964 Norair Sisakian  Soviet Union
14th Paris 1966 Bedrettin Tuncel  Turkey
15th Paris 1968 William Eteki Mboumoua  Cameroon
16th Paris 1970 Atilio Dell'Oro Maini  Argentina
17th Paris 1972 Toru Haguiwara  Japan
3rd extraordinary Paris 1973
18th Paris 1974 Magda Jóború  Hungary
19th Nairobi 1976 Taaita Toweett  Kenya
20th Paris 1978 Napoléon LeBlanc  Canada
21st Belgrade 1980 Ivo Margan  Yugoslavia
4th extraordinary Paris 1982
22nd Paris 1983 Saïd Tell  Jordan
23rd Sofia 1985 Nikolai Todorov  Bulgaria
24th Paris 1987 Guillermo Putzeys Alvarez  Guatemala
25th Paris 1989 Anwar Ibrahim  Malaysia
26th Paris 1991 Bethwell Allan Ogot  Kenya
27th Paris 1993 Ahmed Saleh Sayyad  Yemen
28th Paris 1995 Torben Krogh  Denmark
29th Paris 1997 Eduardo Portella  Brazil
30th Paris 1999 Jaroslava Moserová  Czech Republic
31st Paris 2001 Ahmad Jalali  Iran
32nd Paris 2003 Michael Omolewa  Nigeria
33rd Paris 2005 Musa Bin Jaafar Bin Hassan  Oman
34th Paris 2007 Georgios Anastassopoulos  Greece
35th Paris 2009 Davidson Hepburn  Bahamas
36th Paris 2011 Katalin Bogyay  Hungary
37th[116] Paris 2013 Hao Ping  China
38th Paris 2015 Stanley Mutumba Simataa[117]  Namibia
39th Paris 2017 Zohour Alaoui[118]  Morocco
40th Paris 2019

Ahmet Altay Cengizer[119]

 Turkey
41st[120] Paris 2021

Executive Board

Term Group I
(9 seats)
Group II
(7 seats)
Group III
(10 seats)
Group IV
(12 seats)
Group V(a)
(13 seats)
Group V(b)
(7 seats)
2012–2015

 Austria
 France
 Italy
 India
 Spain
 United Kingdom
 United States

 Czech Republic
 Montenegro
 North Macedonia
 Russia

 Brazil
 Cuba
 Ecuador
 Mexico

 Afghanistan
 Indonesia
 Pakistan
 Papua New Guinea
 South Korea
 Thailand

 Angola
 Ethiopia
 Gabon
 Gambia
 Malawi
 Mali
 Namibia
 Nigeria

 Jordan
 Tunisia
 United Arab Emirates

2014–2017[121]

 Germany
 Netherlands
 Sweden

 Albania
 Estonia
 Ukraine

 Argentina
 Belize
 Dominican Republic
 El Salvador
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
 Trinidad and Tobago

 Bangladesh
 China
 India
 Japan
   Nepal
 Turkmenistan

 Chad
 Guinea
 Mauritius
 Mozambique
 Togo
 Uganda

 Algeria
 Egypt
 Kuwait
 Morocco

2017–2019[122]

 France
 Greece
 Italy
 Spain
 United Kingdom

 Lithuania
 Russia
 Serbia
 Slovenia

 Brazil
 Haiti
 Mexico
 Nicaragua
 Paraguay

 India
 Iran
 Malaysia
 Pakistan
 South Korea
 Sri Lanka
 Vietnam

 Cameroon
 Ivory Coast
 Ghana
 Kenya
 Nigeria
 Senegal
 South Africa

 Lebanon
 Oman
 Qatar
 Sudan

2019–2023[123]

 France
 Germany
 Italy
 Netherlands
 Spain
  Switzerland

 Hungary
 Poland
 Russia
 Serbia

 Argentina
 Brazil
 Dominican Republic
 Uruguay

 Afghanistan
 Kyrgyzstan
 Philippines
 Pakistan
 South Korea
 Thailand

 Benin
 Congo
 Guinea
 Ghana
 Kenya
 Namibia
 Senegal
 Togo

 Saudi Arabia
 UAE
 Tunisia

Offices and headquarters

The Garden of Peace at UNESCO headquarters

The UNESCO headquarters, the World Heritage Centre, is located at Place de Fontenoy in Paris, France. Its architect was Marcel Breuer. It includes a Garden of Peace which was donated by the Government of Japan. This garden was designed by American-Japanese sculptor artist Isamu Noguchi in 1958 and installed by Japanese gardener Toemon Sano. In 1994–1995, in memory of the 50th anniversary of UNESCO, a meditation room was built by Tadao Ando.[124]

UNESCO's field offices across the globe are categorized into four primary office types based upon their function and geographic coverage: cluster offices, national offices, regional bureaus and liaison offices.

Field offices by region

The following list of all UNESCO Field Offices is organized geographically by UNESCO Region and identifies the members states and associate members of UNESCO which are served by each office.[125]

Africa

Arab States

Asia and Pacific

Europe and North America

Latin America and the Caribbean

Carondelet Palace, Presidential Palace – with changing of the guards. The Historic Center of Quito, Ecuador, is one of the largest, least-altered and best-preserved historic centres in the Americas. [126] This centre was, together with the historic centre of Kraków in Poland, the first to be declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO on 18 September 1978.

Partner Organisations

Controversies

New World Information and Communication Order

UNESCO has been the centre of controversy in the past, particularly in its relationships with the United States, the United Kingdom, Singapore and the former Soviet Union. During the 1970s and 1980s, UNESCO's support for a "New World Information and Communication Order" and its MacBride report calling for democratization of the media and more egalitarian access to information was condemned in these countries as attempts to curb freedom of the press. UNESCO was perceived as a platform for communists and Third World dictators to attack the West, in contrast to accusations made by the USSR in the late 1940s and early 1950s.[129] In 1984, the United States withheld its contributions and withdrew from the organization in protest, followed by the United Kingdom in 1985.[130] Singapore withdrew also at the end of 1985, citing rising membership fees.[131] Following a change of government in 1997, the UK rejoined. The United States rejoined in 2003, followed by Singapore on 8 October 2007.[132]

Israel

Israel was admitted to UNESCO in 1949, one year after its creation. Israel has maintained its membership since 1949. In 2010, Israel designated the Cave of the Patriarchs, Hebron and Rachel's Tomb, Bethlehem as National Heritage Sites and announced restoration work, prompting criticism from the Obama administration and protests from Palestinians.[133] In October 2010, UNESCO's Executive Board voted to declare the sites as "al-Haram al-Ibrahimi/Tomb of the Patriarchs" and "Bilal bin Rabah Mosque/Rachel's Tomb" and stated that they were "an integral part of the occupied Palestinian Territories" and any unilateral Israeli action was a violation of international law.[134] UNESCO described the sites as significant to "people of the Muslim, Christian and Jewish traditions", and accused Israel of highlighting only the Jewish character of the sites.[135] Israel in turn accused UNESCO of "detach[ing] the Nation of Israel from its heritage", and accused it of being politically motivated.[136] The Rabbi of the Western Wall said that Rachel's tomb had not previously been declared a holy Muslim site.[137] Israel partially suspended ties with UNESCO. Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister Danny Ayalon declared that the resolution was a "part of Palestinian escalation". Zevulun Orlev, chairman of the Knesset Education and Culture Committee, referred to the resolutions as an attempt to undermine the mission of UNESCO as a scientific and cultural organization that promotes cooperation throughout the world.[138][139]

On 28 June 2011, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee, at Jordan's insistence, censured[clarification needed] Israel's decision to demolish and rebuild the Mughrabi Gate Bridge in Jerusalem for safety reasons. Israel stated that Jordan had signed an agreement with Israel stipulating that the existing bridge must be dismantled for safety reasons; Jordan disputed the agreement, saying that it was only signed under U.S. pressure. Israel was also unable to address the UNESCO committee over objections from Egypt.[140]

In January 2014, days before it was scheduled to open, UNESCO Director-General, Irina Bokova, "indefinitely postponed" and effectively cancelled an exhibit created by the Simon Wiesenthal Centre entitled "The People, The Book, The Land: The 3,500-year relationship between the Jewish people and the Land of Israel". The event was scheduled to run from 21 January through 30 January in Paris. Bokova cancelled the event after representatives of Arab states at UNESCO argued that its display would "harm the peace process".[141] The author of the exhibition, Professor Robert Wistrich of the Hebrew University's Vidal Sassoon International Centre for the Study of Anti-Semitism, called the cancellation an "appalling act", and characterized Bokova's decision as "an arbitrary act of total cynicism and, really, contempt for the Jewish people and its history". UNESCO amended the decision to cancel the exhibit within the year, and it quickly achieved popularity and was viewed as a great success.[142]

On 1 January 2019, Israel formally left UNESCO in pursuance of the US withdrawal over the perceived continuous anti-Israel bias.[citation needed]

Occupied Palestine Resolution

On 13 October 2016, UNESCO passed a resolution on East Jerusalem that condemned Israel for "aggressions" by Israeli police and soldiers and "illegal measures" against the freedom of worship and Muslims' access to their holy sites, while also recognizing Israel as the occupying power. Palestinian leaders welcomed the decision.[143] While the text acknowledged the "importance of the Old City of Jerusalem and its walls for the three monotheistic religions", it referred to the sacred hilltop compound in Jerusalem's Old City only by its Muslim name "Al-Haram al-Sharif", Arabic for Noble Sanctuary. In response, Israel denounced the UNESCO resolution for its omission of the words "Temple Mount" or "Har HaBayit", stating that it denies Jewish ties to the key holy site.[143][144] After receiving criticism from numerous Israeli politicians and diplomats, including Benjamin Netanyahu and Ayelet Shaked, Israel froze all ties with the organization.[145][146] The resolution was condemned by Ban Ki-moon and the Director-General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova, who said that Judaism, Islam and Christianity have clear historical connections to Jerusalem and "to deny, conceal or erase any of the Jewish, Christian or Muslim traditions undermines the integrity of the site.[147][148] "Al-Aqsa Mosque [or] Al-Haram al-Sharif" is also Temple Mount, whose Western Wall is the holiest place in Judaism."[149] It was also rejected by the Czech Parliament which said the resolution reflects a "hateful anti-Israel sentiment",[150] and hundreds of Italian Jews demonstrated in Rome over Italy's abstention.[150] On 26 October, UNESCO approved a reviewed version of the resolution, which also criticized Israel for its continuous "refusal to let the body's experts access Jerusalem's holy sites to determine their conservation status".[151] Despite containing some softening of language following Israeli protests over a previous version, Israel continued to denounce the text.[152] The resolution refers to the site Jews and Christians refer to as the Temple Mount, or Har HaBayit in Hebrew, only by its Arab name — a significant semantic decision also adopted by UNESCO's executive board, triggering condemnation from Israel and its allies. U.S. Ambassador Crystal Nix Hines stated: "This item should have been defeated. These politicized and one-sided resolutions are damaging the credibility of UNESCO."[153]

In October 2017, the United States and Israel announced they would withdraw from the organization, citing in-part anti-Israel bias.[154][155]

Palestine

Palestinian youth magazine controversy

In February 2011, an article was published in a Palestinian youth magazine in which a teenage girl described one of her four role models as Adolf Hitler. In December 2011, UNESCO, which partly funded the magazine, condemned the material and subsequently withdrew support.[156]

Islamic University of Gaza controversy

In 2012, UNESCO decided to establish a chair at the Islamic University of Gaza in the field of astronomy, astrophysics, and space sciences,[157] fueling controversy and criticism. Israel bombed the school in 2008 stating that they develop and store weapons there, which Israel restated in criticizing UNESCO's move.[158][159]

The head, Kamalain Shaath, defended UNESCO, stating that "the Islamic University is a purely academic university that is interested only in education and its development".[160][161][162] Israeli ambassador to UNESCO Nimrod Barkan planned to submit a letter of protest with information about the university's ties to Hamas, especially angry that this was the first Palestinian university that UNESCO chose to cooperate with.[163] The Jewish organization B'nai B'rith criticized the move as well.[164]

Che Guevara

In 2013, UNESCO announced that the collection "The Life and Works of Ernesto Che Guevara" became part of the Memory of the World Register. US Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen condemned this decision, saying that the organization acts against its own ideals:[165]

This decision is more than an insult to the families of those Cubans who were lined up and summarily executed by Che and his merciless cronies but it also serves as a direct contradiction to the UNESCO ideals of encouraging peace and universal respect for human rights.

UN Watch also condemned this selection by UNESCO.[166]

Listing Nanjing Massacre documents

In 2015, Japan threatened to halt funding for UNESCO over the organization's decision to include documents relating to the 1937 Nanjing massacre in the latest listing for its "Memory of the World" program.[167] In October 2016, Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida confirmed that Japan's 2016 annual funding of ¥4.4 billion had been suspended, although he denied any direct link with the Nanjing document controversy.[168]

US withdrawals

The United States withdrew from UNESCO in 1984, citing the "highly politicized" nature of the organisation, its ostensible "hostility toward the basic institutions of a free society, especially a free market and a free press", as well as its "unrestrained budgetary expansion", and poor management under then Director-General Amadou-Mahter M'Bow of Senegal.[169]

On 19 September 1989, former U.S. Congressman Jim Leach stated before a Congressional subcommittee:[170]

The reasons for the withdrawal of the United States from UNESCO in 1984 are well-known; my view is that we overreacted to the calls of some who wanted to radicalize UNESCO, and the calls of others who wanted the United States to lead in emasculating the UN system. The fact is UNESCO is one of the least dangerous international institutions ever created. While some member countries within UNESCO attempted to push journalistic views antithetical to the values of the west, and engage in Israel bashing, UNESCO itself never adopted such radical postures. The U.S. opted for empty-chair diplomacy, after winning, not losing, the battles we engaged in… It was nuts to get out, and would be nuttier not to rejoin.

Leach concluded that the record showed Israel bashing, a call for a new world information order, money management, and arms control policy to be the impetus behind the withdrawal; he asserted that before departing from UNESCO, a withdrawal from the IAEA had been pushed on him.[170] On 1 October 2003, the U.S. rejoined UNESCO.[169]

On 12 October 2017, the United States notified UNESCO that it will again withdraw from the organization on 31 December 2018 and will seek to establish a permanent observer mission beginning in 2019. The Department of State cited "mounting arrears at UNESCO, the need for fundamental reform in the organization, and continuing anti-Israel bias at UNESCO".[154] Israel praised the withdrawal decision as "brave" and "moral".[169]

The United States has not paid over $600 million in dues[171] since it stopped paying its $80 million annual UNESCO dues when Palestine became a full member in 2011. Israel and the US were among the 14 votes against the membership out of 194 member countries.[172]

Kurdish-Turkish conflict

On 25 May 2016, the noted Turkish poet and human rights activist Zülfü Livaneli resigned as Turkey's only UNESCO goodwill ambassador. He highlighted the human rights situation in Turkey and the destruction of historical Sur district of Diyarbakir, the largest city in Kurdish-majority southeast Turkey, during fighting between the Turkish army and Kurdish militants as the main reasons for his resignation. Livaneli said: "To pontificate on peace while remaining silent against such violations is a contradiction of the fundamental ideals of UNESCO."[173]

Campaigns against illicit art trading

UNESCO has drawn criticism for aspects of its 2020 celebration of the 50th anniversary of the 1970 convention against the illicit trade of cultural property.

The UNESCO 1970 Convention marked a move towards cultural nationalism. The April 1863 Friedman 'codes of conduct' for warfare and cultural property (backed by The Hague Convention's 'all man kind' mantra) followed an international approach, where cultural objects were 'fair game', so long as not destroyed for the benefit of the global knowledge pool. In 1970, UNESCO pioneered and documented a new national approach, where the importation of illicit cultural objects, for example, the results of plundered territories or invaded land (see James Cook & The Gweagal Shield; Elgin Marbles) should be prevented.[174] Furthermore, the Articles demand the repatriation of objects that are still in the possession of those who accessed it illicitly.[174]

These two approaches are neatly defined as cultural internationalism and cultural nationalism. [175] Neither has prevailed persuasively in academia, though cultural nationalism is campaigned most prominently. Merryman, pioneer academic for art and cultural law, notes the benefit for society in debating the two paridigms given neither has prevailed in history. [175]

In 2020 UNESCO stated that the size of the illicit trade in cultural property amounted to 10 billion dollars a year. A report that same year by the Rand Organisation suggested the actual market is "not likely to be larger than a few hundred million dollars each year". An expert cited by UNESCO as attributing the 10 billion figure denied it and said he had "no idea" where the figure came from. Art dealers were particularly critical of the UNESCO figure, because it amounted to 15% of the total world art market.[176]

In November 2020 part of a UNESCO advertising campaign intended to highlight international trafficking in looted artefacts had to be withdrawn, after it falsely presented a series of museum-held artworks with known provenances as recently looted objects held in private collections. The adverts claimed that a head of Buddha in the Metropolitan Museum's collection since 1930 had been looted from Kabul Museum in 2001 and then smuggled into the US art market; that a funerary monument from Palmyra that the MET had acquired in 1901 had been recently looted from the Palmyra Museum by Islamic State militants and then smuggled into the European antiquities market, and that an Ivory Coast mask with a provenance that indicates it was in the US by 1954 was looted during armed clashes in 2010–2011. After complaints from the MET, the adverts were withdrawn.[177]

Products and services

  • UNESDOC Database[178] – Contains over 146,000 UNESCO documents in full text published since 1945 as well as metadata from the collections of the UNESCO Library and documentation centres in field offices and institutes.

Information processing tools

UNESCO develops, maintains and disseminates, free of charge, two interrelated software packages for database management (CDS/ISIS [not to be confused with UK police software package ISIS]) and data mining/statistical analysis (IDAMS).[179]

  • CDS/ISIS – a generalised information storage and retrieval system. The Windows version may run on a single computer or in a local area network. The JavaISIS client/server components allow remote database management over the Internet and are available for Windows, Linux and Macintosh. Furthermore, GenISIS allows the user to produce HTML Web forms for CDS/ISIS database searching. The ISIS_DLL provides an API for developing CDS/ISIS based applications.
  • OpenIDAMS – a software package for processing and analysing numerical data developed, maintained and disseminated by UNESCO. The original package was proprietary but UNESCO has initiated a project to provide it as open-source.[180]
  • IDIS – a tool for direct data exchange between CDS/ISIS and IDAMS

See also

Further reading

References

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